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Can you make cosmetic products safer?

California is one of the world leaders in their propensity to regulate cosmetics. They started with their own VOC regulations and also put together Prop 65 which requires manufacturers to disclose and put a warning label on any product that contains a compound on the Prop 65 list. safer-consumer-products-summit

So, it’s not surprising that the Golden State is the site for the 5th Annual Safer Consumer Products Summit. It’s being held at the end of October and you can find out more information about it here.

Anyway, in this report about the event they discuss the idea of featuring discussions about making cosmetics more safe. Which makes me wonder…

How do you make a safe product more safe?

Removing potentially harmful ingredients

Does the strategy of removing ingredients that are thought to be harmful work? I don’t know. It could, or maybe not. When you remove an ingredient you replace it with something else. What is the safety profile of the new ingredient? Typically, these new ingredients have much less testing history behind them and are arguably more dangerous.

I know there are more instances of product contamination because companies like Badger Sunscreen are avoiding proven preservatives like parabens and formaldehyde donors. Apparently, marketing positions trump product safety.

It would be great if we could step back and create some measurable way to determine the safety of cosmetics. If there was a way to quantify safety then you really could make products more safe.

But I’ve never seen anyone attempt to quantify the danger of cosmetics. And if you make regulatory changes but there is no way to measure their effect, have you really done anything to improve the safety of cosmetic products?

With things like cars it is easy. You can measure number of deaths in car crashes. Then anything you can do to reduce that number increases the safety of cars.

What similar thing could be done with cosmetics? I have no idea. I wonder if they will discuss this at the 5th Annual Safer Consumer Products Summit.

Probably not, but it would be interesting.


Here’s a novel idea in cosmetic ingredients…bacteria. According to this report, scientists have found that they could improve the condition of skin by topically applying a bacteria that could metabolize ammonia. cosmetic raw material bacteria

In the study they took an ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (Nitrosomonas eutropha) commonly found in soil and created a suspension for application to skin. They created a placebo suspension then got two groups of people to apply either product to their face and scalp for 3 weeks. The test group reported an improvement in their skin condition while the control group didn’t.

Study critique

While this is a pretty interesting approach and suggests that more research is worthwhile, I’m a bit skeptical of results or even the approach. First, it doesn’t seem like there were any statistically significant improvements. Next, the results were all self-reported. Why wasn’t a dermatologist involved in evaluating the participants? Perhaps that would be the next step.

Anyway, this is an innovative approach to solving cosmetic problems. Could you get rid of acne by applying “good” microbes to kill off the “bad” microbes? What other problems could be solved by the application of “good” microbes? Perhaps a living deodorant? Or a mouthwash with microbes that kill off the plaque causing bacteria?

Lot’s of possibilities.

On the other hand, this would be a significant formulation challenge. How would you keep the microbial culture alive? And how would you prevent contamination by “bad” microbes? The preservatives we use today kill microbes indiscriminately.

Something to think about (along with other ideas for good microbes in cosmetics).


Best Beauty Brands in Social Media

Most big beauty brands have been slow to adopt social media but their presence is starting to make itself known.  This article in Happi lists the winners of the second annual consumer choice awards for online beauty sites.  Since most of the readers of this website either work for a cosmetic brand or want to have their own, it is useful to review some of these sites and see what they are doing right.  And perhaps you might want to start adopting some of their techniques. online beauty brands

OPI Twitter

Twitter is a simple way to communicate with your followers in 140 character messages.  It’s incredibly helpful to include links which direct people to web pages you want them to see.  The Twitter page for OPI was the winner this year.  Here are some things notable about their page.

1. Have a graphic at the top that portrays brand image.
2. Follow / Following ratio 586 : 190,000
3. Posts about once a day
4. Posts a lot of pictures

Ulta Beauty Facebook

Facebook is the social media site that over a billion people are on.  So are a lot of beauty brands.  The winner in this category was Ulta Beauty which is a store more than a beauty brand.  Anyway, they’ve got over a million followers so they must be doing something right.  Here are a few notable features of their pages.

1. Have a header picture with a celebrity
2. Posts once or twice a day
3. Respond to at least some comments
4. Post short videos
5. Followers = 1,476,339

OPI Products on Pinterest

Are you Pinterest?  Do you even know what it is?  Well, think of it as a linking page which has lots of pictures.  People can “pin” web pages that they find interesting.  It’s very visual.  And if you find someone who pins lots of things you find interesting, you can follow them.  In OPI’s case they’ve got >45,000 people who follow them.  Pretty good but still behind their Twitter and Instagram accounts.  Here is the things interesting about their Pinterest page.

1. 59 boards of different things
2. 1419 pins
3. 45,942 followers
4. Lots of pictures of nails and celebrities

OPI Instagram

Instagram is all about pictures.  You post a picture and your followers see it and can comment on it (or like it).  Well, OPI wins this category too because they’ve got nearly 300,000 followers.  People really like pictures of nails and nail polish.  Perhaps that because nail polish is the most artistic of all cosmetics.  Each nail is like a canvas.  Anyway, here are some of the things OPI is doing to excel on their Instagram account.

1. 294,626 followers – following 235
2. Their hashtag #StayPolished
3. Post about once a day
4. Over 7000 likes on a single post

Hopefully, this list will inspire you to get started with your own social media accounts and that you’ll adopt some of these strategies.  It’s getting hard to stand out on the Internet these days.  Also, traditional advertising through Television, Radio, and magazines is being pushed aside by these social media sites.  If you’re not competing here you won’t be competing in the marketplace for too long in the future.


Summary of Journal of the SCC July – August

What could be more fun on a cold Saturday afternoon than going through the latest issue if the Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Chemists? Well, if you haven’t had time to do it fret not. Here is a quick summary of the stories you’ll find in the July/August issue. scc-journal

There were 5 main articles.

1. Antioxidant activity in mung bean sprouts. Yes, mung bean sprouts have antioxidant properties & yes they are safe for use in cosmetics. Will they have a noticeable effect? Who knows.

2. Internal structure changes of eyelash induced by eye makeup. They evaluated eyelash samples from 36 women using scanning X-ray microscopic tomography. They found that women who used mascara had more damage (cracked cuticles & more porous cortex). There was not a correlation with the use of an eyelash curler. They hypothesize that damage is actually caused when people try to remove the mascara. Interesting study but the sample size was small & they relied on self reported usage data. I would be curious what a more controlled study would show.

3. Development of a new resistant liposome. By coating a liposome with a hydrophobized polysaccharide the authors were able to show that the structures stayed more stable in the presence of surfactants. The implications are that you can use liposomes to deliver ingredients to the skin in a surfactant containing formula.

4. Assessment of cadmium, lead and nickel levels in hair care products. Yes, they found these metals as trace contaminants in a large percentage of hair products found in Turkey. They were within limits of safety according to Canadian and German limits but Turkish standards prohibit any level of these materials.

5. Nanoemulsion of limonene in water system prepared by ultrasonic emulsification. The researchers were able to create a nano emulsion of limonene using water and a surfactant blend of sorbitane trioleate and polyoxyethylene oleyl ether. This may be useful for creating longer lasting fragrance.

There you have it. If you want more information about the stories feel free to check out the Journal of the SCC. It’s free to members!


Presentation tips for Cosmetic Chemists

During your career you will likely be encouraged to give a presentation in front of either a group of co-workers, the public, or fellow scientists. It’s a great chance to demonstrate your expertise and develop your reputation as a scientist. It’s also helpful if you’re in sales. science presentation

I’ve done a number of presentations and there are a few things that would have helped me immensely with some talks if I knew them. These tips have been developed over time only because I have made the mistakes the tips are designed to prevent. Follow them and you will be on your way to giving the best presentation you can.

1. Slides should assist you not distract the audience.

If you start a slide by saying “I know this slide is an eye sore” or “I know you can’t read this…” Then it shouldn’t be a presentation slide. Slides like this are totally distracting and frustrating to the audience. If there is a point you are trying to make with the slide, make a slide that spells out the point. If it’s a graph of data, the text should spell out the conclusion. Don’t make your audience struggle to read your slides.

2. Have a clear structure. Otherwise you’ll confuse people or worse, bore them.

Starting with an Agenda or Objective slide will help prepare the audience to best receive your message. That way they can anticipate what you will be talking about and when you will be done. This is very useful to the vast majority of your audience. Telling them how many slides you have or how many minutes you will be talking is also a good idea. You don’t want to bore people.

3. Be aware of time. Hit breaks & finish on time!

It doesn’t matter how great your topic is or how entertaining you are, if there are breaks scheduled the audience will start looking at their watches & start wishing you were finished. Don’t ever go long unless the audience says they want you to.

4. Engage the audience with activities

Getting the audience to participate in the talk by posing a question or getting them to do some activity will better keep them engaged & make your talk more interesting. It’s hard to pay attention for more than half an hour. An audience participation break will make it easier for your audience to continue giving you their attention.

5. Be prepared for technological problems.

If you’re giving a talk anticipate all sorts of technological problems. You should have a plan in the event that the computer doesn’t work or your slides don’t show. What would you do? Bring your own computer! Have your slides on a thumb drive. Bring connection cables for the projector especially if you use an Apple computer. It’s also a good idea to have speakers & don’t rely on accessing the Internet. Even if a place tells you they have WIFI don’t count on it.

6. When people ask questions, repeat the question for the audience before answering.

At the end of the talk if there are questions but no microphone you should rephrase the question before you answer. That way everyone in the audience will be able to follow what you are saying in your answer. It will also help to ensure that you understood the question asked. There is little more frustrating than asking a question and getting the answer to something you weren’t asking.

7. Know your audience.

Each audience will have a different background and you should taylor your talk to that audience. For example, if you are from the US and are giving a talk in Canada or the EU about cosmetics try to avoid definitive statements about regulations or even labeling rules. Things that are true about the FDA regulation of cosmetics may not be true in other places around the world. Find out what the regulations are that affect your audience or avoid talking about the topic.

8. Be clear on why your presentation will be useful to the audience.

When you are giving a talk about cosmetic science or any other topic, your audience is there hoping to learn something that will be both interesting and useful to them. Make it clear in the beginning why your presentation will be useful to the people in the audience.

9. Avoid misspellings!

While not everyone in the audience will care about blatant misspellings there is no doubt that there will be a number of grammar nazis present. There is nothing that makes you look less credible than slides with misspellings on them. It’s not hard to fix so just don’t have any.

Well, there you have it. 9 tips about giving scientific presentations that occurred to while watching scientific presentations. Keep these in mind the next time you give a talk and hopefully your audience will pay more attention to you and spend less time answering emails, checking their phones, or brainstorming ideas for blog posts.

And for more on creating your talk see this series we did on giving a science presentation.


Becoming an excellent cosmetic formulator

I saw this infographic titled “how to excel as a formulator” which lists 9 things you need to achieve that goal. The 9 tips from George Deckner are great but they could use some expansion. Unfortunately, the article on which the infographic was based does little to expand on the advice. So, I thought I’d do that here.  cosmetic formulating

9 steps to becoming an excellent cosmetic formulator

1. Be an innovator not an inventor – An inventor makes a new product and hopes the benefits are so obvious it sells itself. Sometimes they do, but usually they don’t. An innovator takes an existing product and makes it better. Since most cosmetic formulation types have already been invented, to be a great formulator you need to focus on innovation.

2. Partner with suppliers – It used to be that formulators tried to keep their projects a secret but this doesn’t make much sense these days. You can get much more accomplished if you outsource as much of your research as you can. Getting suppliers to assist your lab work will help you screen more materials and develop better products faster. Don’t worry about secrecy. The formula does not sell the product! Your idea is not unique and the thing that will make it successful is your marketing efforts. Great formulations are important but there are lots of excellent formulas that never achieved market success.

3. Develop raw material expertise – Being a cosmetic formulator is like being a cook, you just use different ingredients. To become a great formulator you need to know all the ingredients at your disposal. You should make it a point to create & test samples of any new raw material you encounter, even if it is not obvious when you would use it.

4. Kill bad prototypes quickly – Don’t waste time on technologies that don’t have great promise. Whenever you get a new raw material test it at the highest concentration level suggested. If you can’t see a performance difference at the highest use level, don’t bother testing it at lower levels.

5. Manage risk? I’m not really sure what this means but I suppose the advice could be that you should test things before launching. Ensure that your products are safe and effective before committing to a launch date.

6. Sell your ideas – As a scientist and formulator you probably didn’t get any sales training. However, in the business world people don’t really care which surfactant you used or about the clever emulsion technology you developed. They want to know the benefits of your technology and why they or anyone else should want to use it. Learn to tell stories that inspire people to get behind your ideas. And try not to get discouraged. The ideas from R&D people are often ignored in the cosmetic industry.

7. Benchmark your formulas – Excellent idea. There is no reason you shouldn’t be able to create a formula that works as well as the best performing cosmetic products on the market. Here you can learn to benchmark cosmetic formulas.

8. Quickly identify killer issues? – I’m not sure what this advice means but perhaps the suggestion is to think through the entire production process and address potential issues. Know whether your suppliers are going to be reliable or whether your lab formulation can still be produced on a large manufacturing scale.

9. Archive your knowledge – You are going to learn a lot over time and you are going to forget most of it. You should have a way to relearn information and keeping a digital archive is a great way to do that. Write notes about what you learned from every project. Keep copies of articles you found particularly helpful. Using a service like Dropbox or Evernote is a great way to keep your information online and secure.

So there you have it, 9 expanded tips on how you can become an excellent cosmetic formulator. Thanks to George Deckner for the original info graphic.


Scientific Activism for Cosmetic Chemists

I was at the Lake Erie SCC meeting the other night and the talk was given by Dr Joe Schwarcz regarding cosmetics, chemicals and the public perception of product safety. He made some great points about a number of hot button issues including lead in lipstick, parabens, pthlates, and more. The basic message is that NGO groups like the EWG have it wrong and the best science supports the notion that modern cosmetics are safe to use. science megaphone

One of Dr Schwarcz’s main messages was that the public is being misinformed by fear mongering groups and it is up to scientists to set the record straight. Unfortunately, he provided little information about how to do that.

I’ve given this a lot of thought however and put together what I believe scientists can do to combat the unscientific nonsense that is pushed daily by misinformed groups.

Why is this a problem

But before we cover what to do, it’s helpful to discuss why this is a problem cosmetic chemists should care about. First, miseducated consumers will influence market research which could make your marketing folks demand you avoid disparaged ingredients. You may lose control over which ingredients you can use but you won’t lose the responsibility for the results of those decisions. There is no upside for the formulator who is restricted in their ingredient choice for no scientific reason.

Next, your company may lose sales & may be targeted for negative publicity for no good reason. J&J was compelled to reformulate perfectly fine formulations due to unfounded claims by consumer groups.  You will likely find that reformulating functional products takes away resources that should go into creating innovative new products. This kind of fear mongering inhibits cosmetic innovation.

Finally, as a formulator you should be educated about the safety of ingredients you use in your formulations. You should be the expert that people turn to when they have questions about cosmetics.

What can you do?

The reasons that so much misinformation gets out in the public and takes hold is because groups that spout this nonsense are learned in the ways of PR, the media finds scare stories more interesting, and there are not a lot of scientists offsetting lies with the truth. The way that you can do your part to start combating these lies about cosmetic and chemical safety is by publishing your own content which tells the truth. Participate in scientific activism. Here are 10 things you can do.

Scientific activism

1. Learn what’s true – In starting a blog or answering questions about these topics you should be well versed on what is true. How many of you know about the safety profile of parabens? What would you tell people about the levels of lead in lipstick? As a formulator, you should have ready, science based answers to these questions. The way to learn what science has to say is to do some research in reliable, science-based sources. The FDA Cosmetics site is a great place to start. The CIR is also good as is Personal Care Truth.  And you can learn a lot on our cosmetic science discussion forum.

2. Know your competition – While you’re trying to get the correct information out about cosmetic products you should know who the misinformation groups are and what they are saying. Some of the key groups that have wrong things to say about cosmetic products include

3. Start a blog – People learn about things from the Internet and doing Google searches. Having a blog is a great way to get your information to show up when someone does a search. Right now if you do a search for the term sunscreen, the EWG 2014 sunscreen guide is what comes up. This is junk information filled with untruths and misunderstandings of science. The first mostly unbiased result is the 5th spot on the search page, an article by WebMD. The FDA shows up in the 7th & 8th spot but scientifically valid information from the American Academy of Dermatology doesn’t even show up on the front page. Similarly, junk information about Parabens is the first thing you see when you search for it on Google. This should not be. Starting a blog and writing about sunscreen, parabens or other cosmetic topics important to consumers will help move these junk peddlers off the front page of the search results. It’s easy to start a blog. Go to WordPress.com or Blogger.com to get started for free.

4. Link to good information – When you write about topics be sure to include links to sites with supporting information using the appropriate words. Do a search for the term keywords to understand better what I’m talking about but basically, Google ranks websites based on the number of other websites that link to them. So the reason that the CFSC ranks high for the term ‘parabens’ is because there are a lot of websites that use the word paraben then link it to the CFSC webpage that talks about parabens. To get the FDA’s website higher for the search term paraben, you should link to it like I did in this post. FDA link to the word paraben. They way to knock bad information off the front of Google is to replace it with good information.

5. Write about the right things – When you are writing your blog you should make a list of topics that you want to help change the public’s perception about. I would suggest things like parabens, preservatives, pthalates, sulfates, sunscreens, or any of the other villified cosmetic ingredients. The more you write about these things, the greater the chance your page will show up in a search result and the more likely someone will find out what is true.

6. Participate in Social media – Having a blog is great but many of these conversations are happening on social media sites like Twitter, Facebook, and LinkedIn. You should set up your own accounts on these websites and start producing content. You could just repeat things from your blog but you could also respond to what other people are putting out. Getting a digital conversation going is the best way to combat misinformation. There are more social media sites beyond the ones I’ve suggested but those are the main ones. Youtube is also a great place to produce content if you want to make videos.

7. Correct Wikipedia – Wikipedia is an excellent source for many topics but for controversial ones it is less reliable. Since anyone can update a Wikipedia entry you should go through and update topics that are filled with misinformation. I know I had to fix the Cosmetics entry because it was filled with inaccuracies that seemed to have been placed there by the EWG. There is an art to updating a Wikipedia page however so be sure to following these best practices guidelines.

8. Rebut bad information – There is a skeptical plug-in called Rbutr which you can update on any page you find that has misinformation. Start using it to correct things that are mistaken on the web. It is not having a huge impact at the moment but it may in the future.

9. Stay informed – Finally, stay informed about new findings in the cosmetic area. When there is new information about the safety of parabens or sunscreens or anything else you should know about it. Don’t be afraid to reverse your opinion either based on new evidence. We are scientists and it is ok to be wrong. It is not ok to be wrong and not correct your mistakes when you discover you’ve made one. Information is always changing and if something you wrote a few years back is no longer applicable be sure to set the record straight. This is the primary difference between fear mongering groups like the EWG and scientists. The EWG will never reverse their opinion on parabens despite the fact that science has demonstrated that they are safe.

Publishing Tips for Working Scientists

1. Watch your behavior – Remember that anything you write on the Internet will potentially be there forever. Avoid calling people names, being insulting, swearing or writing or producing anything that you will regret in the future. If you are searching for a job now or in the future, potential employers will look at your online activity and use that in their assessment of whether they want to hire you. If you use your blog to mock natural product formulators don’t be surprised if it is harder for you to find employment with one of those producers. Some people may not worry about this but you might not want to add this extra hurdle in your way of future job prospects.

2. It can be emotionally draining – Being more visible on the Internet will open you up to more criticism. Even if what you say is true there will be critics who will call you names, question your ethics, question your intelligence, and call you evil. I learned this after being on the Rachel Ray show and getting highly criticized in their comments section. They seem to have removed it now but there were some mean things said about me. Here is a recap by another blogger. But don’t be discouraged. People will say things to you or about you on the Internet that they would never say to you in real person.

3. Don’t waste your time & energy – You’ll need to learn to let some arguments go. Avoid the temptation to be the one to finish an argument. Respond once or twice to someone then move on. No one is really interested in having their mind changed. You respond to effect people who may be lurking and reading the discussion but don’t ever think you are going to change the mind of the person you’re communicating with. Most likely, you won’t no matter how good your information is. There are people in this world who will never believe humans cause global warming and parabens are safe to use as preservatives.

4. Know your company’s policies – Perhaps most important is that you should know your company’s online policy. And if they don’t have one assume that anything you write will be seen as representing what your company is saying. You can put a disclaimer on your stuff like “thoughts and opinions expressed are those of the author and the author alone and do not represent those of any past, present or future employers.” That may help but some companies don’t want you to be writing about cosmetics at all. In these cases, I would encourage you to post using a pseudonym. I did that for years on the Beauty Brains until I was able to leave my corporate job. As the employee of a corporation you are not really free to write what you want without any possible repercussions. This is true of a blog, social media accounts and forums. If you are not independent be very careful about what you say or start writing anonymously.

Well, that’s all I have for the moment. I hope some of you take some of these suggestions and start fighting the tide of unscientific nonsense that has swept through the Internet. Perhaps we can fight the fear mongers and use the truth to remove them from the limelight.


Visit the Cosmetic Compliance Summit September 15-17

If you sell or product cosmetic products around the world you are going to have to keep up with the various local governmental regulations.  And what better way to learn those than to attend a three day summit?

Learn more about the Cosmetic Compliance Summit

It is going to be held in New Jersey on September 15 – 17, 2014.

Here are the main things you will learn by attending this conference.

• Understanding the need for Good Manufacturing Practices in order for successful trade operations
• How cosmetics companies ensure safety without using animal tests; What are the alternatives?
• Approaching the new and improved Product Information File; Understanding what new information needs to be added
• Understanding the New Requirements of the Cosmetic Product Safety Report
• How are your product claims being backed up by clinical and proved trials?
• Legal and business strategies for Global Cosmetics Regulatory Compliance: US, Latin and Central America
• Identifying who is designated as being the “Responsible Person” for your brand

You don’t want to miss this important industry event especially if you want to produce and sell cosmetics in a compliant way.



Sunscreen science and technology for formulators

Article by -Nitesh Rajput – Cosmetic scientist

Sunscreen, also commonly known as sunblock, sun screen, suntan lotion, sunburn cream, sun cream or block out, is a lotion, spray, gel or other topical product that absorbs or reflects some of the sun’s ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the skin exposed to sunlight and thus helps protect against sunburn.

Depending on the mode of action sunscreens can be classified into physical sunscreens (i.e., those that reflect the sunlight) or organic sunscreens (i.e., those that absorb the UV light)

What is SPF

SPF, also known as sun protection factor, is determined by how long you expose yourself to the sun before you start to burn, but in reality it is mainly a measure of UV A-B protection.

How to measure SPF

The SPF can be measured by applying sunscreen to the skin of a volunteer and measuring how long it takes before sunburn occurs when exposed to an artificial sunlight source. In the US, such an in vivo test is required by the FDA. It can also be measured in vitro with the help of a specially designed spectrometer. In this case, the actual transmittance of the sunscreen is measured, along with the degradation of the product due to being exposed to sunlight. The transmittance of the sunscreen must be measured over all wavelengths in the UV-B range (290–320 nm), along with a table of how effective various wavelengths are in causing sunburn (the erythemal action spectrum) and the actual intensity spectrum of sunlight. Such in vitro measurements agree very well with in vivo measurements.

Numerous methods have been devised for evaluation of UVA and UVB protection. The most reliable spectrophotochemical methods eliminate the subjective nature of grading erythema.

SPF math

Mathematically, the SPF is calculated from measured data as

SPF equation

E(\lambda) is the solar irradiance spectrum,
A(\lambda) the erythemal action spectrum, and
\mathrm{MPF}(\lambda) the monochromatic protection factor, all functions of the wavelength \lambda.

The MPF is roughly the inverse of the transmittance at a given wavelength.
The MPF is roughly the inverse of the transmittance at a given wavelength.

The above means that the SPF is not simply the inverse of the transmittance in the UV-B region. If that were true, then applying two layers of SPF 5 sunscreen would be equivalent to SPF 25 (5 times 5). The actual combined SPF is always lower than the square of the single-layer SPF.

Difference b/w Sunscreen and Sunblock

Both sunblock and sunscreen will protect your skin from UVA and UVB light (aging rays and burning rays), they use different chemicals and those chemicals work in different ways, which is why different terms are used.

Sunblock works like a mirrored shield. It contains minute particles of reflective material. They reflect the sun’s rays away from your skin blocking the damaging rays from ever reaching at all.
The ingredients included in sunblocks include Titanium dioxide and zinc oxide. (This includes Powder Sunscreen and Mineral Makeup.)

A sunscreen works in a way more like a sponge: where the sunblock reflects the beams away from your skin, the sunscreen soaks them up before they can reach you. Those rays that escape have been altered in wavelength, so that they are no longer in frequencies that endanger the skin. The ingredients that are most often found in sunscreens include PABA, Benzophenones, Cinnamates, Salicylates,

Sunscreen ingredients and there limitations

Here are the primary sunscreen ingredients used around the world.

p-Aminobenzoic acid -15 % (banned in US)
Cinoxate -3 %
Benzophenone-8 -3 %
Benzophenone-3 – Up to 10 %
Benzophenone-9 -Up to 10 %
Octyl methoxycinnamate – up to 20 %
Octyl salicylate – Up to 10 %
Sulisobenzone – Up to 10 %
Trolamine salicylate- Up to 12 %
Avobenzone – Up to 10 %
Titanium dioxide – Up to 25 %
Zinc oxide -Up to 25 %
(% vary according to regions and countries)


Known to his friends as Ed, Maison G. de Navarre, first took an interest in cosmetic science while studying pharmacy at the College of the City of Detroit (now Wayne University).  As part of his qualifications to take a State Board examination, Ed worked in a drugstore and became interested in the many cosmetics and perfumes sold in there. Maison G de Navarre

Starting the SCC

Louis Spencer Levy, publisher of The America Perfumer, created the Michigan Cosmetic and Extract Association in 1933. Ed became the first president and served as secretary and treasurer in later years. Ed began writing a column for The America Perfumer in 1934 called “Desiderata”, which means “desired things” in Latin.  He shared technical information and advice in these columns. Through correspondences with readers, Ed soon realized the cosmetic industry had a need for a way to share and build collective knowledge.

It was in 1935 that Ed had the idea to create a The Society of Cosmetic Chemists (SCC). He planned a founding meeting that summer which was to take place in Cincinnati. After arriving in Cincinnati for the meeting, numerous cancellations frustrated Ed and he returned to Detroit disappointed.

In 1938, Ed began the task of creating the first edition of the book “The Chemistry and Manufacture of Cosmetics.” The initial manuscript was one thousand pages long and the book was so popular that it was reprinted six times. (I tracked down a first edition copy for my personal cosmetic science library!) That book has evolved into a multiple volume set that undergoes periodic updates and those books are still essential assets to cosmetic scientists today.

First SCC meeting

In 1944, Ed was ready to give it another shot. He had begun a business consulting in the cosmetics industry and approached many of his clients to gain support for the development of the SCC.  May 23, 1945 the founding members of the SCC met at the Lexington Hotel. A constitution and the name of the organization were adopted and there was a short technical program. Ed served as the first chairman as there the role of president was not yet established.

Expanding to the IFSCC

Ed was also very involved in the creation of the International Federation of the Societies of Cosmetic Chemists (IFSCC). On September 9, 1959 eight representatives from different national Societies of Cosmetic Chemists met in Brussels, Belgium to solidify the mission and goals.  The first congress was held in Munich, Germany in 1960 with 350 attendees from 16 countries in attendance. Ed served at the first president of the IFSCC.

Today, Maison G. de Navarre’s legacy is celebrated through two awards that bear his name.  The highest honor of the SCC in the US is the Maison G. de Navarre Medal Prize for scientific contributions to the field, and the IFSCC awards a promising young scientist a prize in his name.

SCC today

While dissemination of scientific knowledge is easily accessible through publication, much more so today, Ed realized the importance of personal connections and conversations that could be developed through a professional organization. Today the SCC and IFSCC continue to thrive on the opportunity for personal dialogue and camaraderie.

Go here for more information about the Society of Cosmetic Chemists.