Article by: Perry Romanowski

One of the requirements of most cosmetic products is that they have an appealing rheology. This means that you as a cosmetic formulator you are going to have to figure out a way to control the viscosity (or thickness) of your products. There are a number of ingredients that are used for this purpose. Each kind has applications to different formulation types. Here is a basic introduction.

Lipid Thickeners

Lipid thickeners are primarily composed of lipophillic materials. They work by imparting their natural thickness to the formula. Typically, these materials are solids at room temperature but are liquified via heat and incorporated into emulsions. They are used most often in creams and lotions. Some common types include Cetyl Alcohol, Stearyl Alcohol, Carnauba Wax, and Stearic acid.

Naturally derived thickeners

Various thickeners are found in nature or are derivatives of natural thickeners. These ingredients are polymers that work by absorbing water to swell up and increase viscosity. Cellulose derivatives like Hydroxyethylcellulose are frequently used in liquid cleansing products such as shampoo or body wash. Guar gum is another example of a naturally derived thickener. Others include Locust Bean Gum, Xanthan Gum, and Gelatin. These thickeners can be used in any formula that contains a high level of water. Unfortunately, they can be inconsistent, cause clear formulas to become cloudy, and feel sticky on skin.

Mineral thickeners

Mineral thickeners are naturally occurring, mined ingredients that can absorb water or oils and boost viscosity. They give a different kind of viscosity than the natural gums. Materials include Silica, Bentonite, and Magnesium Aluminum Silicate. These thickeners can be used to thicken oils as well as water based formulations.

Synthetic thickeners

Perhaps the most versatile of all thickeners are the synthetic molecules. Carbomer is the most common example. It is a water-swellable acrylic acid polymer that can be used to form crystal clear gels. They have a desirable feel which makes them superior to other thickening agents that leave a sticky feel. Carbomer thickeners also have the ability to suspend materials in solution so you can have low viscosity formulas with large particles suspended. These thickeners also help to stabilize emulsions and are frequently used in lotion and cream products.

Ionic thickening

I would be remiss if I didn’t mention one of the most common thickeners for surfactant solutions. Simply adding Salt (NaCl) you can get an anionic surfactant solution to become thicker. In fact, salt is frequently used as an adjusting agent during production.  In a future article, we’ll discuss the salt curve and what it means for rheology.

What is your favorite cosmetic thickening agent? Leave a comment below.

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179 comments

  1. yasir

    hi sir what can be used as a thickner in shampoo if we want it to be more viscous ?? and what will be the reason if a shampoo loses its homogenity ????

    1. Perry Romanowski

      That depends on what is in your shampoo.

  2. Javon

    Hi, with the exception of carbomer, is there a thickener that can increase the viscosity of an anhydrous ethanol solution? Thanks

    1. Perry Romanowski

      I’d suggest you post your question in our forum.

  3. Pawel

    Hi Perry,

    What do you think about application of synthetic mineral thickeners like lithium magnesium sodium silicate in a variety of cosmetics? They are very efficient thixotropy agents used in, e.g. gelly deodorants. Do you think they may be used- instead of Carbomers- as highly efficient co-thickeners in cosmetics?

    1. Perry Romanowski

      They have a different feel than Carbomers. They certainly have application in cosmetics.

  4. Adaobi lweka Ezerioha

    Pls what hair thinker can l use for my hair mask products and mayonnaise too. Thanks

    1. Perry Romanowski

      That’s not enough information to answer your question. I suggest you post it in our forum.

  5. Haemin

    I used Xanthan gum and Aristoflex AVC with EDTA-Na. Then, I found these thickeng agent didn’t work well. I wonder if you let me know why this happened. Thank you very much..

    1. Perry Romanowski

      I’d suggest you post your question in our forum. I can’t answer because I don’t know what is in your formula and what you mean by ‘didn’t work well’

  6. Danny

    Hi Perry,

    I am looking at formulating a water based hair pomade, similar viscosity to the Layrite,Upper Cut or Muk Slick (all brands of current popular hair pomades). Effectively they are more like gels, with an extremely sticky and thick viscosity. I was heading down the carbomer route, however all references are showing a thickness more like standard hair gel. Any ideas?

  7. Kelly

    I have been trying to thicken a solution containing Polyhexamethylene guanidine (PHMG) without success. when I tried it with xanthan Gum it didn’t work. please advice me. thank you

  8. Dane Hobbs

    I have been adding chrondrus crispus to a healing salve in order to thicken it up. The problem is that after a week or so a film of mold will develop on the surface. Is there another thickening agent I can use that will not allow mold to develop?

    1. Perry Romanowski

      You need to add a preservative to prevent mold growth. No thickener will prevent mold growth.

  9. Olly

    am making a stretch mark cream,
    how to thicken it without side effect

    1. Perry Romanowski

      What do you mean by ‘side effects”?

  10. sharmaine

    I am making creams with the use of Turmeric extract,magnesium sulfate,Neem oil ,Zinc oxide. Is it ok? and what are the best % can be use of each ingredient?

  11. Victoria

    Hi there! I’m making a massage oil with fractionated coconut oil, sweet almond oil and essential oils. What can I use as a thickening agent? I’d like to make it less runny and more like a gel. Thanks!

    1. Perry Romanowski

      Try one of the mineral thickeners listed above.

  12. vasanthi

    i am preparing w/o microemulsion using oleic acis as oil phase surfactant transcutol and labrasol. I need to improve viscosity of emulsion to form a gel which need to be transparent. can any one suggest suitable polymer?

    1. Perry Romanowski

      Have you tried Carbomer?

  13. Chichi

    Please I want to thicken my lotion and need a thickner that has no side effect on skin.

  14. james

    please how do I formulate garlic extract to produce a mosquito repellent lotion

    1. Perry Romanowski

      Garlic extract does not have any impact on mosquitos.

    2. james

      The scent due to the sulfur content in garlic causes mosquitoes to expel. Mosquitoes can not withstand the scent. And so scares them in a way. please help me sir.

  15. avi

    plz tell me the name of acid thickner to thick Hydrochloric acid

    1. Perry Romanowski

      Cellulose would work as would clays. It really depends on the concentration of HCl that you’re using.

  16. Ali Khalid

    Hi Perry. I want to thicken oil into gel with strings.. and it should not effect the clarity of the Oil. Please suggest..

  17. avinash

    please tell me how to emulsify silicone oil?

    1. Perry Romanowski

      That really depends on what type of silicone you are trying to emulsify but typically you can just buy emulsified silicone and use it in your formula.

  18. dudi sukmawadi

    hai… i m making the hair spa, what best for thickening agent, i have used carbomer before but the product to be watery/not oily after robber by hand even performance looking very thickened, is the xanthan gum good to use??, and how to dilute to the water?, thanks..

    1. Perry Romanowski

      Yes, you could use xanthan gum. But carbomer should work. You probably didn’t neutralize it properly.

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  20. samuel

    How to avoid air trap in when making a xanthan gum gel?

    I try hydrate the xanthan gum first and mix it still making tiny air trap

    I try disolve it in glycerin and add water still have air trap

    Any suggrstion ?

    Thank you

  21. hamid

    hi , i am making dishwashing liquid by sulfonic acid ,naoh , texapon, coconut, salt, urea , triethanol amin but its viscosity is low. what can i do for increasing its viscosity?

    1. Perry Romanowski

      This is a cosmetic science blog so we don’t really talk about dishwashing formulations. However, you could do a salt curve analysis to see if salt can thicken or you might be able to use something like Hydroxyethylcellulose.

  22. Meenakshi Pathak

    Hi
    I want to prepare 98% aloe vera gel but my carbomer is not swelling in aloe vera even on addition of triethanolamine. What i can do to prepare gel?

    1. Perry Romanowski

      Disperse the Carbomer in water first and don’t use as much Aloe Vera Gel.

  23. mustaffa mukhtar

    dear sir,can I heat carbomer solution?

    1. Perry Romanowski

      Yes

  24. Raphael

    Do you have any experience in formulation of chemical peelings with very low pH? which thickener you would use with high concentrations of AHA and pH about 2?
    In order to have homogeneous gel?

  25. Amit Thakur

    what are the post thickning agent for cream, lotion, or conditioner i.e; (O/W emultion).
    I mean to say that if the viscocity of cream or lotion’s remains low then what chemicals shoud i add in cool phase to increase desired viscosity.

    1. Perry Romanowski

      You can add a thickening agent like Sepigel which is a water swellable polymer

  26. batool jaradat

    Dear Sir
    I am using the following ingredients in cats and dog natural herbal insecticidal shampoo:
    sodium laureth sulphate
    lauramide DEA
    pyrethrin extract
    pipronyl butoxide
    water
    PLEASE advice the best thickener for this
    dr . batool

    1. Perry Romanowski

      You could try Hydroxyethylcellulose or Xanthan gum

    2. adnan

      you may pls add xanthan gum with the ratio of 0.5 of the total formula i think this should solve your problem

  27. Yoseph Melesse

    I am preparing liquid detergent using LABSA, SLES, CDEA, CAUSTIC SODA, ALCOHOL, STPP and fragrance. But the liquid is not as viscus as I need. What low cost thickener shall I use to make the liquid more viscus?

    1. Perry Romanowski

      Hydroxyethylcellulose

  28. avinash

    I am trying to prepare a handwash using an anionic (SLES)or no-ionic (Nonoyl phenol) surfactant. I have prepared the formultion using 5% surfactant with other ingredints normally used to make a shampoo or a liquid hand wash. When I use the finished formulation to wash my hands it keeps on foaming no matter how many times I wash my hands with tap water. I have tried reducing the concentration of the surfactant to as low as 1% but still the foaming does not stop. The handwash does not wash off the skin.
    Please let me know what I need to add or alter in the formulation in order to get rid of this refoaming or sticky feel.

    1. Perry Romanowski

      You could add something like Glycerin or some type of oil like coconut oil which will reduce foam

  29. Richard Yeck

    We are looking for mineral thickener and synthetic thickener. Please let me have a mobile or land contact so that I can call as soon as I have your reply. Thank you.
    Kind regards
    Richard Yeck
    GoodAire.

  30. Shreyansh sethia

    Hello
    I want to make guar gum powder for cosmetic purpose. So kindly suggest me what type of chemical or indegrades need to add in guar gum powder for cosmetic.. ??

    1. Perry Romanowski

      If it’s a powder, you could probably mix it with talc to make it more manageable during application.

  31. Mahesh

    Dear Sir

    I want to thicken the wetting agent chemical for textile processing .
    Tnx

    1. Perry Romanowski

      Use one of the thickeners described in the article above.

  32. Oliver

    I make Shea butter skin moisturizers. In 80 degree, or higher temps, they will melt back to a liquid in their jars. Lipid Thix increases the melting point so they don’t melt plus acts as a thickener. You only need a little bit. I use 2.5% of my entire batch size. Works beautifully!

  33. Aziza

    I’m looking to replicate this liquid grip product I use for lifting weights. The ingredients on the bottle are alcohol, magnesium carbonate, thickener, and fragrance. Which type of alcohol and thickener should I use? It’s essentially liquid gym chalk but without the mess because my gym doesn’t allow chalk. Thanks!

    1. Perry Romanowski

      The alcohol to use is most likely Ethanol. The thickener is probably Carbomer.

  34. Milta

    I’m making a hair mask which consist of Natural aloe, coconut oil and avocado. The combination is very liquidity and I’m looking to thicken it. What should I add?

    1. Milta

      Avocado oil*

    2. Perry Romanowski

      Xanthan gum

  35. avinash

    how to make thick to silicon emulation to make polish?

    1. Perry Romanowski

      Use a high molecular weight silicone

  36. avinash

    what thickner I can use to thick water and glycerine mixture but should not be sticky. I tried guar gum, CMC but they are sticky. please tell me which non sticky thickner I can use?

    1. Perry Romanowski

      Carbomer could be used.

      1. avinash

        carbomer is very costly any other chemical which is cheap? i dont use it on body parts

        1. Anthony D'Ovidio

          You can also try the Polyaldos from Lonza. Its not as costly.

        2. Perry Romanowski

          Sorry, I’ve suggested all the ones I know.

  37. Sharon

    Good Afternoon
    I am trying to make a gel out of honey
    I have tried the polymers more synthetic products but I was wanting to use a natural gel
    No problem Xanthem and some others great in a higher water based solution
    I can’t seem to achieve the honey gel
    I mix the water and gel and preservative in like a phase 1
    Heat the honey
    And
    Add phase 2 add to phase 1
    Doesn’t gel up properly and still too sticky
    Suggestions please
    Thanks Sharon

  38. abby

    I made shampoo but it didn’t thicken as I expected. I tried xanthan gum but after some time it settles down. So please help me n tell me which other thicker can I use n what can I use to increase viscosity. My shampoo has SLES, WHITE OIL, GLYCERINE, SALT, N D FRAGRANCE.thank u

    1. Perry Romanowski

      White oil is not a good ingredient to use in shampoos. And you need a secondary surfactant like Cocamidopropyl Betaine

  39. Roy

    I am trying to make a natural shampoo for dogs with a coconut, palm and macnut base and need help w 2 questions..how best to thicken..and how best to make white vs clear..I have read failor and followed youtube and stumbled on tube by Susan who makes clear liquid too thick w borax, then cooks and when adds water to thin down it turns white..was not her goal but would work for me..any suggestions?

    1. Perry Romanowski

      You haven’t really given enough information (like ingredient list) for me to help. You could probably use an ingredient like Hydroxymethylcellulose or Xanthan Gum or maybe even just salt to thicken. Then you could use Glycol Stearate as a whitening ingredient. But without more info I can’t offer much more help. You should post this question in our cosmetic science forum.

  40. John

    Is it sufficient to use one thickener or better to use two – like xanthan gum and hydroxyethyl cellulose in the one formulation?

    1. Perry Romanowski

      One thickener is typically sufficient but it depends on various factors such as the feel you’re going for and the ingredients in your formula.

  41. Amoo Temitope

    Please can i use salt NaCl as a thickening agent for home made hand sterilizer

    1. Perry Romanowski

      It depends on what ingredients are in your formula but if you don’t have an anionic surfactant in the system, probably not.

  42. Meenal

    I am working on clear, sulphate free face wash. The Base is good but want to thicken up the system. Tried Carbopol ETD 2020 of Lubrizol, but the sensorial is not that much good, kindly suggest.

    1. Perry Romanowski

      You could try Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose.

  43. Jen

    Someone asked earlier how to thicken aloe vera juice to a gel, you said to use xanthan gum. My question is, how does this work? Do I just mix in the xanthan gum and the job is done or do I need to heat the aloe/ xanthan mix or what?
    Please help

    1. Perry Romanowski

      It depends on whether the Xanthan Gum readily goes into solution. That will depend on how much water is in your system. You probably don’t need to heat it but then you might.

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  45. Alyssa

    If I’m making a hair gel with tons of hold, which thickening agent would be best? i was thinking the xantham gum or carbomer but I’m not sure which one is better miscible with oils and water.

    1. Perry Romanowski

      Carbomer would be better.

  46. abedis

    Hi perry
    Can you help me can you sugest a thickener for mineral oil to make it a gel for candle am abedis from greece thankyou inadvance.

  47. June

    How can I naturally thicken aloe Vera liquid to a gel consistency?

    1. Perry Romanowski

      Use Xanthan gum. It also depends on what you mean by “natural”

  48. nalaka

    Im a producer of hand wash,dish wash and tile cleaner. And its been difficult for me to thicken the product. So wat should i use as the thickener?

    1. Zeeshan jamshed

      Hi nalaka and Perry I hope both of you are fine
      I have same problem like nalaka can you suggest me any thing

  49. habib

    Hi
    I WANT thickner for waterless hand cleaner for remove motor oil based on water + orange essential oil

  50. elaine

    I’m making a natural dish washing liquid with Castille soap and decyl glucoside, what could I use to thicken the formula?
    Thank u

  51. habib

    Hi
    I have thickener agent for waterless hand cleaner based on water plus orange essential oil for mechanic worker
    Thank you

  52. Sally M

    I’m making a body wash that contains coconut milk, castille soap, honey, glycerin and essential oils. What should I use as a thickener?

    1. Perry Romanowski

      You could use Xanthan gum

  53. shipah

    How do I thicken up Alcohol?

    1. Perry Romanowski

      Using clays can work.

  54. Subir Nil

    I’m white phenyl manufacture. i want need thinkcner for that. Please help me

    1. Perry Romanowski

      I don’t have an answer for you but maybe someone else will.

  55. vasil

    brother am making liquid hand soap with sls water nacl and perfume…what should add to get more thichnes?

    1. Perry Romanowski

      You could add Cocamidopropyl Betaine

  56. Kyei

    How can I solidify a liquid soap ?

    1. Perry Romanowski

      That depends on the composition of the liquid soap.

    2. Kyei

      african black soap

  57. betty kimble

    I made liwuid soap designed for my hair.. I added xantan gum to thicken it but it separated. could you please help me to know why this happened? and also when they say xantan gum should be added at 2%, what exactly do they mean.. is it 2/100 x the weight of diluted soap? and also, what is the bet preservative for shampoo made with potassium hydroxide.

    1. Perry Romanowski

      It really depends on what is in the formula. Saying liquid soap is not enough information.

  58. LaVerne

    Hi, I’m looking for a Natural Thickening Agent for 100% pure oils?

    1. Perry Romanowski

      Bentonite clay may work. You have to test it.

      1. Raphael

        you have raton polymers for oil thickening but not very natural. Or you can simply use comprimitol CG (wax)

  59. akshay

    Hi, I am making a 100% herbal product to sell in market. So i would like to know a few natural thickeners which are not sticky and beneficial for skin. Can you plz suggest me few of them. Thanks in advance.

    1. Perry Romanowski

      Thickeners are not beneficial for skin. They are simply in a formula to make it easier to spread. You could try Xanthan Gum or Hydroxyethylcellulose

  60. poojvrg

    I have made a water based hand sanitized with HEC but its sticky. how can i remove its stickiness. I want it to feel like alcohol based ones
    please help

    1. Perry Romanowski

      You can try a different thickener. You might also add emollients to offset the stickiness.

  61. Jasmin Flowerz

    Hi. I would like to know how to thicken my homemade, handmade recipe for a tinted eyebrow gel formulation, it’s aloe vera gel-based, but needs a boost in viscosity.

    I’ve searched high and low, yet struggle to find the information I need, specifically suited for cosmetics.. instead, I find ideas for jellies and jams! I need any help/recommendation I can get for this botanical formulation. I will be selling this, SO it ‘needs’ to be good! I’ve considered adding clay (Amazonian clay?)to the mixture, but I’m concerned with the possibility of it making the product too rich and pigmented, therefore, minimizing it’s buildability.

  62. Ron Greene

    I have formulated a household cleaner that is water based and leaves no residue. The problem is that it is water based and runs rapidly down on vertical surfaces. How can I increase the viscosity and still keep it completely residue free?

    Thank you in advance!
    Ron

    1. Perry Romanowski

      Carbomer would work pretty well

  63. Nicole

    What is the best thickener to use for serum.
    Serum is natural with coconut oil, vitamin e etc

    1. Perry Romanowski

      A clay is best for oil systems.

    2. Jitendra

      How much oil part is there ? You can use Acypol TR-2

      1. Rugged

        Whats Acypol TR-2?

        1. Perry Romanowski

          ACRYPOL TR-1 and ACRYPOL TR-2 polymers are cross linked copolymers of Acrylic acid having combination of hydrophilic Lipophilic regions within the polymer matrix facilitates the formation of stable oil / water emulsions

          1. Raphael

            same as PEMULEN TR1 & TR2 from lubrizol

  64. shiri

    which thickener is best for alchoholic solution to get clear and stable and non-toxic gel form?

    1. Jitendra

      Acrypol 956 and Acrypol 950 can work with 60%-90% alcohol. For hand sanitizer and other applications.

  65. Rajendra singh

    I have one formulation which contain oil water henna powder to making paste but after some time it realise oil and water can u suggest me the thickness agent.

  66. valeria

    Hi Perry,
    please advice me on the best thickener to use for my liquid soap formulation. I normally use C.M.C but can’t find any at the store. Can I use Guar gum or is there a better one that you can be used?

    1. Perry Romanowski

      Well, you could use HEC or HPMC. Guar gum might work but Xanthan gum could work too.

    2. Jitendra

      You can use Acrypol ET-12

  67. Delicia A

    I made a shampoo/body wash from African Black soap imported from Nigeria grated finely. I brought 1 and 1/2 cups of water just to the boiling point to 4.5 to 5.0 ounces of the soap. I mixed till all soap was dissolved. I then added a slightly heaped tsp of raw Shea while the mix was still hot. Once at a warm temp I then added 1 tsp hemp oil and 1 tsp Argan oil, blending well. Finally, I added my essential oils and once again blended. I gave these as gifts for the holiday. My brother told me his thickened right up to the point it didn’t pour. I simply told him to add a bit more water and let it sit then shake it. He has had no problems with it since. Sometimes in my experience other additives are not needed. The Shea is what made the shampoo become thickened plus the 1 and 1/2 cups water was 1/2 cup less than was called for. But that extra 1/2 cup made it too thin. The next time I will do 1 and 3/4 cup water. I prefer going as natural and as organic as possible. I for one do not care whether my product is clear or not. My goal is a healthy, quality product.

  68. mohammed

    what is the alternative of Dimethicone Copolyol in after shaving gel formula

  69. Celese Brovelli

    Could you please suggest a thickener that:
    – dissolves easily in a water matrix, which is infused with botanicals and only 1% coconut oil
    – is of natural origin (I am not using synthetic ingredients for this conditioner)
    – doesn’t leave residues/flakes in a leave- in type of hair product
    Thanks!

  70. nkechi

    please I am make lighting cream using kojic, arbutin, licorice. what thickner can I use

    1. Perry Romanowski

      That really depends on what is in the rest of the formula.

  71. Rajesh Bansal

    I am preparing a hand wash by using EGMS, SLS, SLES, Water and many other material. What should I have to add to make this thick except Sod. Chloride and what % should be there.

    1. Perry Romanowski

      A cellulose would work.

  72. masood

    i m making cream from stearic acid base so pls suggest me which thickner agent is best for my product

    1. Perry Romanowski

      Use Carbomer

  73. tq

    hi
    i would like to know which thickener is best for paraffin oil to get clear and opaque gel form

    1. shzjuia

      Parrafin oil is available in diffenrent viscosities. Please buy high viscosity parrafin oil and there is no need to add any thickner

  74. Jane

    I’m making a toner, and trying to incorporate Cetearyl Glucoside for texture reasons.
    It is an emulsifier, and I have no oils or fats in my product. would it incorporate at all if I mixed it in slowly?

    Also, if I use carbomer, is it necessary to use a neutralizing agent?

    Thanks!

    1. Perry Romanowski

      Yes, you need a neutralizing agent if you are using carbomer. Cetearyl Glucoside should go into the solution but use rapid mixing and heat, not slow mixing.

      1. Jane

        Thank you Perry!

    1. Perry Romanowski

      Try one of the clay thickeners mentioned above

    2. john arthur (pharmacist)

      i know you can make an emulsion from the oil.the formula is 4:2:1 oil,water,gum. You can use mortar and pestle,or homogenise them………john arthur pharmacist. Ghana west africa.

  75. Shell

    Hi Perry

    I’m new to using Hydroxyethylcellulose. I’ve searched everywhere, and found you. Can HEC only be used with water based actives, or can any oils (at all) be introduced to the formula without causing separation? I’d love your input. Thanks dearly!

    1. Perry Romanowski

      HEC works by absorbing water to make the system thicker. If there is no water in the system it’s not going to thicken.

  76. gblegend

    Thank you so much for this article. But I sincerely need a help. I am making a cold water liquid starch. Though I av tried pva+cmc,but its not giving me a good result. I wil appreciate it if you could help me with a very effective formular. Thanks

    1. Perry Romanowski

      I do not know what you mean by a cold water liquid starch. Why don’t you just mix water and starch?

  77. Teresa shaban

    I am making sugar based body scrubs with almond oil and liquid lecithan. It is separating after a short resting period . What can I use to help bind the oils with the sugar to stop the separation.

    1. Mara

      Hello. You can use humectant like honey, vegetble glycerin or aloe vera gel to bind it together

  78. micheal

    What thickener should I use to formulate a. Toilet bowl cleaner that contains HCL? I have tried so many thicneners but they loose their viscosoty quick. I also tried adding salt but it reduces the pH of the solution. How do I go about it?

    1. vinai srivastava

      we have recently developed a thickner for HCl. We sell this product for thickening HCl ( 15% ). Gelled HCl is stable at higher temperatures also. Our product name is AR – 104

  79. Rhonda

    Hello, im making body oil, I would love to know what thickener is best for body oils. Thanks

  80. sajid

    i m making cream from stearic acid base so pls suggest me which thickner agent is best for my product

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