Article by: Perry Romanowski

Click here for a complete list of the Cosmetic Formulation basics series.

Nail Polish

Nail polish is designed to improve the appearance and condition of nails. It also can protect nails from breakage.

What nail polish does

In its simplest form, a nail polish is a liquid solution of pigments, solvents and film formers. It typically comes in a bottle with a brush applicator. The solution is applied to the nail and then allowed to dry at which point it becomes a smooth, hard, colored film.

How nail polish works

Nail polishes contain a number of ingredients including pigments, film formers, plasticizers, resins, solvents and other additives.

There are two types of pigments used in nail polishes. Mineral pigments like titanium dioxide and colored iron oxides and organic pigments like red #6 and yellow #5. In the US the pigments that are allowed for use in nail polish are strictly limited.

To make the nail polish look right, a film former is needed. The ingredient most frequently used is nitrocellulose. Since it is a dangerous compound to work with there are a limited number of manufacturers who can produce nail polish.

Resins like shellac and acrylic polymers are added to improve the properties of the nitrocellulose film. This makes the film tougher and helps the nail polish last longer. Plasticizers are needed to improve the film flexibility. Camphor and dibutyl phthalate are most often used.

Solvents like alcohols, esters, and ketones are used to help the product spread and dry quickly. Finally, additives like viscosity modifiers and UV protectors may be included.

Nail polish formulation

Here is a standard nail polish formulation (click to enlarge)


  1. Mo. Amir

    Sir plz tell me how will do work in color i m alrdy made base but 3 item not available in india 1- benzophenone1 and 2 item stearlknoium hectorite and 3rd item tosylamide / formalfehyde resin sir tell me my cont.
    no 07786808570

  2. Manoj Sharma

    sir.. Mixing time….?

    1. Perry Romanowski

      I can’t answer as your question is not specific enough.

  3. Jana

    Can anyone recommend me a book for formulation of nail polish which has the 5 free and 7 free formulations…
    Thanks and Regards

  4. nilkesh

    plz help how to make a matte nail polish

  5. Nilkesh goswami

    Hii perry
    Plz help me in nail lacquer

    1. Perry Romanowski

      I’m not sure what help you want?

  6. Jana

    Hey guys,

    I have some questions to be clarified, Is there any alternatives to nitrocellulose. Has something like agar , gelatin, carrageenan powder has been used to formulate a good nail polish.

    Best Regards

    1. Perry Romanowski

      No, not really. Nitrocellulose works best. That’s why it is still used.

  7. nilkesh

    Hi Rajat Sir,
    please give ur contact no.. i want to ask a question about nail polish base and gel please help me for best quality to make a nail polish and my contact no 9594995429 please reply as soon as possible i am waiting

  8. Subrata Chatterjee

    I want to begin a new nail polish and nail polish remover manufacturing company . I have gone to the Drug Authority board but the drug inspector asked for the composition. Plz help me for the composition and how to get the drug licence for this company .

    1. Perry Romanowski

      If you are not in the US, I do not know the specific regulations of your country. I’d suggest you contact a contract manufacturer and have them assist you.

  9. Wade

    I want to mix my own color using 4 basic colors: magenta, cyan, yellow and black. Where can I buy in bulk for the above colors. I want to custom made color one bottle ata atime.

    1. frandyfu

      i would like to know ,how about your quantity?we are a manufacture from China?

  10. Malwina

    Hey! How can you remove the pigment from nail polish?

    1. Perry Romanowski

      I don’t think you can. At least not without destroying the nail polish.

  11. Nathalie

    Hi Raj, this is Nathalie from México we need your help!! we want to add shellac resin to our formula to create a super long lasting formula how many is a good amount to add, or how much you think is a good quantity. Thanks!

  12. will

    Please do u have a formula for nail polish dissolver? Thanks!

    1. Perry Romanowski

      Acetone usually works.

      1. gorgeous

        You can use a 1:1 mix of ethyl acetate and butyl acetate to dissolve nail polish.

  13. will

    Please Raj and Perry. Thanks for ur assistance here, am interested in the newer formula, any info yet?

  14. Divya

    Such a informative post. I have few questions-
    Can you please provide formulation of 3-free and 5-free polishes??
    And are polishes easy to formulate??
    Can a person with non chemistry background can also mix the ingredients and create the polishes??
    Can you suggest a polish base supplier in India who doesn’t sell it in bulk??

    TIA 🙂

  15. Mick Salvador


    I am basing my investigatory project on nail polish from some of your raw materials. I have a question regarding the availability of these materials in local pharmacies? Can these be easily obtained? Thank you.

    1. Perry Romanowski

      I don’t really know the market in which you are. Doing a Google search for specific chemicals and raw material suppliers will give you the answer.

      1. Mick Salvador

        Okay, I understand. Thank you so much! 🙂

  16. satish

    Hi..I am interested to manufacture nail polish in Nasik.. India. Need to know from whetre can I get all the raw materials in wholesale. Can somebody guide me.

    1. Sumera

      U can get it from Gujarat Ankhleshwar.. There r lot of online retailers to assist u

  17. lokesh grover

    Dear sir, I want to start a business in nail polish making plz guide me where I can get training for this.raw material supplier process etc.plz reply I am waiting for your ans my no.9713200641. I am ready to pay the training fee. Thanks

  18. Lisa

    Hi, after completed my masters in social work, I have realised my passion is in the nail industry. I am now looking to start an nail polish line and would like advice on where to find a manufacturer in the UK that can assist in polish and labelling. I also will like to know more information on what materials I need to developING my own polish and colours , do i need a licence or euipmemt to start from home. I am hoping this will allow me to get an insight in the whole process of nail polish. Many thanks Lisa

  19. Arpit

    how to make lipgloss plz give me fourmula. .

  20. Divya Pandey

    Hi!! I am from India and i would like to know form where i can buy a good suspension base for nail polish making. I want either 3free or 5free base. Which all sellers ship to India??


      I have a problem in my formulation, with separation, among resin and pigment.
      I would like to know what I need to do to solv this problem.
      Thank You.

  21. billie

    ​I also have a bad reaction to nail polish remover! I just use as little as posible, make sure to wash my hand after, and then I use the Lady Soma Nail treatment after washing my hands. I didnt used to use a moisturizer after nail polish remover, but its a must, because it will leave your hands looking tired

  22. shailesh hedau

    Hello, Mr.Raj sir
    I want to start my new business of nail enamel,
    so my request to you plz guide me how to manufacture of nail enamel which type of chemicals use in this process and also suggest contain of chemicals.

    Thanks & warm regard

  23. Trish

    Hello, I am in Jamaica and I currently study chemistry but I would like to start making my own nail polish to get my cosmetic line started. Could you assist me with a basic formulation and areas to get my raw materials. Do I need any special instruments to do this?

  24. Deepak Arora

    Hiii Rajat ji
    Hou many solid contents should be there in nail polish lequer.
    and please tell me ratio of NC cotton, Reisan and DBP. Which grade of NC cotton should we use

  25. Dani

    Hi Rajat, I want to start with making nail polishes as a hobby and then take it forward to a small business.. How do i contact you for the information and products i need to start this.. Please reply

  26. sara

    hello. i want to make crackel nail polish. can you help me in formulation?
    thank you…

    1. Rajat

      Yes, I can.



      1. Ihab Samir

        Hi Rajat…we r a large NC ink producing co. In Egypt for flexible packaging; where the main raw materials are same as nail polish (NC, pigments, plasticizers, solvents,…). We want to develop our own brand of nail polish on a large scale. Can you help in this project?
        Kindly email back at

  27. Rupesh Kumar

    I am manufacture of nail polish in India.I make a good quality international nail polish . can u give me some idea how u can help me.and i want to make it at very resnable price so i need formulation regarding it if u can provide its very thankful to you. And i also manufracture wood finishing product

    1. Rajat

      Hi Rupesh,

      There would be few questions to make it cheaper. How much do you produce? Do you buy the base from somewhere or you develop it yourself? To understand the cost of the product, it would require a detailed analysis.



  28. Rose

    Am a nigerian, married and tired of staying at home after my university education, pls I wana start my nail polish manufacturing bussiness, pls can u help me with measurement of may be 50litres of nail polish and I will grow from there,

    1. Rajat

      Hi Rose,

      You could buy readymade base and pigments separately and create colours you like to start this business. Please feel free to contact me if you need any further information.



      1. Nikul

        Hi, I would like to buy quality nail colours for artificial acrylic nail arts. If any one can guarantee high quality products for sale in Europe. Approved by European legislation.

      2. Sumera

        Hi Rajat
        Where Can I get a ready made base in bulk in India or Mumbai.. Any online retailer if u know than pls let me know.. It would b a great help

    2. berry

      Hello ma, did u successfully start your nail polish line… If yes, please contact me 07037494312

  29. Elverta Whitaker

    I am my own nail polish using ready made base’s and my own color mixes. I want to make my colors less transparent by using Titanium dioxide. Can you advise the proportion of Titanium dioxide to mica I should use. Or is the measurement by volume?

    Thank you

    1. Rajat

      Hi Elverta,

      It would mostly depend on the combination of your base and pigment material used. Please send me your specification in details with grades you are trying to use. You maynot need to add titanium dioxide to make it more transparent.



  30. Alexia Abrams

    I’m new to this but I’ve been searching for a while now for websites or manufacturers to purchase the things that i need to start my own polish line. With me being a stay at home wife I need the most reasonable prices available. I’m also looking for a chemist in Alabama to help me along the way. Much help needed. Thanks in Advance

    1. Rajat

      Hi Alexia,

      Were you successful in starting your own line? Best I could suggest is to buy base and pigments separately and mix them your way.



  31. Justin

    Hi Rajat,

    Im looking for a chemist in the UK, idealy in the middle of the uk to help with a coating. many thanks

    1. Rajat

      Hi Justin,

      Apologies for this delayed reply? What help are you looking for specifically? Email me your contact number .



  32. Devan Robinson

    Hello, I am looking for a chemist that can assist my wife and I in our quest to take the nail polish industry by storm. Please respond via email to

    1. Rajat

      Hi Devan,

      By storm doesn’t depend on us, it solely depends on you that how many clients you could gather. I could help you get a decent start by helping you develop the right products to take them to your clients.



      1. Nikul

        Hi Rajat,
        Could you please advice of artificial nail products? I am a supplier of high quality nail polymers and have lot of enquiries of nail colours? Please advice and also if you are in same business, i would like to chat with you.

  33. jaswinder singh

    I want a chemist for nail polish remover thinner
    in india area

    I want raw material providers list for nail polish remover thinner

    1. Rajat

      Hi Jaswinder,

      Yes, there is a very good supplier in India. Send me an email, I’ll pass you the contact.



  34. jay

    Dear sir,
    I am in search of relaible manufactur for nailpolish.
    Who are ready to do thard party job for export and
    domestic market.
    Plz contact us. Email :
    thanks and regards

    1. Rajat

      Hi Jay,

      Send me an email and I’ll pass you the contact of the number for your needs.



  35. Bev Spears

    Does anyone know where HEMA is used in cosmetics other than Nail Polish?

    1. Rajat

      Hi Bev,

      Other than nail polish it is also used in Soak Off gels and dental industry too.



  36. Amit

    Hi Rajat,

    I would like your help for product developement for four products which we currently have in mind. It would be great if we can touch base thru phone/email. My Email address is would await your mail.



    1. Perry Romanowski

      Hello – You can use the ‘contact us’ button at the top of this page to get in touch with us via email.

      1. Amit Gandhi


        Already did. Kindly revert for the same.



    2. Lynn

      Looking for someone to formulate a water-based nail polish. In the USA hope you can help.
      Thank you

      1. Rajat

        Hi Lynn,

        It is not a very successful concept as it doesn’t last long like solvent based nail polish but significant developments have been made in innovation of Water based nail polishes. Yes it is possible, but in USA, I am not very sure.


  37. Jen

    I have a client allergic to ingredient yellow #5. Anyone know how a line without his ingredient?

    1. Rajat Narang

      Hi Jen,

      If your client is allergic to yellow 5, you don’t need a whole line as yellow 5 is a colorant CI 19140, which as a colorant won’t be used more than 1% . Your client would avoid using certain colours where Yellow 5 is used and INCI list can be found on secondary packaging.

  38. navid eghbali

    I made nail polish with nitrocellulose and that is matt .which one of raw material can i add for having glossy

    1. Rajat

      Hi Navid,

      You are going somwhere in the wrong direction. Nitrocellulose is considered a film former, so it is not responsible for the matt effect. Looks like you have increased the percentage of other ingredient, what ingredients are you using to creat the base?



  39. Tu Hoang

    Hi everybody,

    I am making nail polish based on the suggested formula, but I cann’t find STEARALKONIUM HECTORITE.
    Some one knows, which supplier can provide this gelling agent?

    Thank you for your help.
    Tu Hoang

    1. Rajat Narang

      Rockwood and Elementis are the companies you are looking for. This formula here is not really updated as toluene has already been banned, it is better if you see the updated formulation.




    I want a chemist for nail polish formulation
    in mumbai , india area

    I want raw material providers list for nail polish

    1. Rajat Narang


      I can help you develop your formulation as well as have global links to all the suppliers for all the raw materials of nail polish.


      Rajat Narang

      1. Andrew


        I am also interested in a formulation and list of raw materials for product development. Can you please help with a price to get this done?

        1. Rajat

          Hi Andrew,

          What do you want to create? Do you have specifications?


  41. ashok dixit

    thanks for providing valuable information

  42. Kimberlee

    Good Day,
    I want to make a Mother of Pearl Nail Polish. Which Mica Pigment do I need to use….i.e coastal scents

    (not making the polish from scratch, I have a base polish, just need to know what color of mica to add to it)

    All info and help welcomed!


    1. Rajat Narang

      One of the pearl of Merck or 11oo’s ….I don’t remeber the exact number.. i think 1198 it is of Azelis is the same pearl powder you are looking for.

      All the best

      1. Rajat Narang

        A little green (or blue and yellow) pigment with Aqua pearl of Merck may also take you very near to what your target is.



        1. Rajat Narang

          Use base 97-98%, pearl powder 2-2.5% and .03 around pigment..



          1. Kimberlee

            Thanks for the leads thus far. Could you possibly provide links?


          2. Yvette

            Can you recommend a reputable nail polish manufacturer in the uk?

  43. Tiera

    I just want to have a makeup line not exactly make it myself how do I got about finding a distributor to mix it then I label it?

    1. Perry Romanowski

      Check a cosmetic buyer’s guide. You can find a number of them searching this site or through Google.

  44. Régis

    I cant stop reading the post serie name: Cosmetic formulation basics. There so much information and i want to take this opportunity to say to every one who work on this , Thank to all of you for this knowledge base.

    I was wondering if there’s a safer alternative to nitrocellulose to use as a film former. Something that a non-chemist person could find easilly enough … and which would keep a good result on the final product.
    Thank you to all !

    1. RAjat


      Yes, there is a safer alternative, but not as good as nitrocellulose, but it do the work.



  45. Rabindra giri

    Dear sir, iwant full formulation of all types of nail polish, like red,top coat ,base coat, jari, sparkle

    1. Perry

      See the post

  46. saleem

    Hy guys
    our team producing cosmetic products at cheap rates with great skills.
    If some one have some problems so contact with us.

  47. dilip patel

    cosmetic formula

    1. Rajat Narang

      Hi Dilip,

      What formulation are you looking for?



    hi rajat
    how ar u
    hope ur fine ,
    i am manufacture of nail polish in India since long time & i am not able to make a good quality international nail polish . can u give me some idea how u can help me .
    naveen bagla

  49. Ashlynn

    I’m thinking of making my own glitter nail polish using a premade clear base. Any tips on where I can get stearalkonium hectorite for suspending agent? Any other tips appreciated. 🙂 Thank you!

    1. Perry

      Check out the INCI Directory.

      1. Rajat

        Hi Ashlyn,

        In Glitter gel, there is no stearalknium hectorite, because it gives a earthy opaque base, whereas glitter gel is almost clear. If it’s not clear, the glitter wont be visible much. So generally silica is used as antisettling agent for glitters (which are PET polyethylene terephthalate) .


  50. Lauren

    Good day,
    I have a training and distribution company in Capetown. I am looking to expand with different products, namely, nail polish, spray tan and spray-on makeup. Can you suggest any chemist who as to contact to assist in this?

    1. Rajat Narang

      Yes, no worries, yes there are chemists. But exactly what kind of assistance are you looking for. Email me on with specific description for what you are looking for.

  51. Nad

    Hi Perry,

    Just wondering if there’s anything else we can use besides stearalkonium hectorite that would act as a suspension agent to hold the micas or glitters that we might want to add to the polish?

    Thank you.

    1. Rajat Narang

      Hi Nad,

      Stearalkonium hectorite is the main antisettling agent………….In certain cases, you can use a combination of stearalkonium bentonite and hydrofumed silica…………..Also there is a combination of alkyd resin with MPA which can be used to hold the base well which won’t allow glitter partices to settle down..



      1. Nad

        Hi Rajat,

        thanks for the info..i will do research for those materials.
        I’ve got another question again. Do you know if Magnesium Carbonate will work for this purpose as well?

        Thanks again.

        1. Rajat Narang

          Hi Nad,

          Magnesium carbonate , though hydrphobic, am not sure about it’s influence, as it has the tendency to release carbon dioxide and water on reacting. I haven’t tried it myself, but it is a good idea to check. Have you ever worked on with it for antisettling?


      2. Eli

        Hi Rajat
        You said MPA.
        What is MPA?
        Is it resin?
        Could you write full name?

    2. Bev Spears

      Try using fumed silica or silicates. You can buy this at any fiberglass retail outlet for building boats. Try: System Three Resins website.

  52. Rajat Narang

    Hey Perry,

    THe formulation you have mentioned above is too old, now there is almost a ban on usage of toluene, DBT and camphor is highlighted too. Is any new information available?

    1. Perry

      Hello Rajat,

      Thanks for the information. I’ll see if I can find a newer formula to post.

  53. Rish

    Hello, I was wondering how much it would be to formulate your own collection of nailpolish of let’s say 20 different colours? If I wanted to make 30 bottles of each colour, how much would that be? Thank you!

    1. Perry

      If you were making them for yourself you might be able to get clear nail polish and add color. This would cost you however much ~100 bottles of nail polish plus the colors would cost.

    2. Rajat Narang

      Hi Riah, what colors of nail polish are you looking for?

      1. rish

        I was thinking of starting my collection, renting out a shop and everything. So 20 colours-the usuals,mattes, some sparkly, some with effects x

      2. navid eghbali

        hi rajat
        how can i find tosylamide/formaldehyde resin

        1. Rajat

          Hi Navid,

          I advice not to use Tosylamide/Formaldehyde resin as masses are again the use of this resin, it would be better without it.



          1. chandrakant patel

            Hi rajat

            I am from Gujarat…plz send me composition to make a quality nail polish
            my mail ID is
            contact no. is +919624686906
            plz send your contact no.

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