What is "advanced lamellar surfactant phase chemistry"?

What is "advanced lamellar surfactant phase chemistry"? Where can I get an example?

Impact of surfactant-phase chemistry on skin mildness: Lamellar surfactants provide significant mildness benefits compared with conventional micellar surfactants

Karl Wei, PhD, Procter & Gamble; Wei Ji, MS, Procter & Gamble; Xu Wang, PhD, Procter & Gamble; Yueqing Niu, PhD, Procter & Gamble; Peter Stoffolano, PhD, Procter & Gamble

Background: Surfactants make up the dominant components in most skin cleansing formulas and are key determinants of a product’s performance. It is well known that these surfactants can compromise the stratum barrier function and skin hydration, largely due to surfactant penetration into deeper layers of the stratum corneum and causing disruption of stratum corneum lipids and proteins. It is important to minimize surfactant-induced skin surface damage by developing advanced skin cleansing technologies with improved skin mildness and reduced surfactant penetration into the stratum corneum.

Objective: One objective of this work was to understand the impact of surfactant phase chemistry (lamellar surfactant phase vs. micellar surfactant phase) on skin mildness through the standard forearm controlled application protocol. The second objective was to determine the impact of surfactant phase chemistry on surfactant penetration profile into the stratum corneum through analytical method.

Method: A standard FCAT methodology was used in this study to assess the skin mildness profile of the liquid cleansing products with different phase chemistry.  Healthy women 18-65 years of age were recruited for the study. Subjects were screened based on their medical history and a baseline visual evaluation of both forearms. Subjects with dryness or redness of less than 3 (on 0-6 scale) were enrolled into this study. Their forearms were washed with liquid cleansers with different phase chemistry. One cleanser was formulated based on conventional micellar surfactant phase chemistry. The second cleanser was formulated based on an advanced lamellar surfactant phase chemistry. The surfactant type and level were the same for these two formulas to better understand the phase chemistry impact on skin mildness. After five days treatment, the skin conditions were measured by both visual grading and instrumental skin hydration method. A total of 5 consecutive tape strips were taken at the end of the study. These tapes were analyzed through standard analytical method to determine the surfactant penetration profile into the stratum corneum.

Results: The formula comprising the lamellar phase surfactants is significantly milder than the same surfactants in the micellar phase. The lamellar phase surfactant had significantly lower dryness and significantly higher corneometer hydration. The surfactant analysis from the tape strips indicates that the improved mildness of the lamellar phase is attributed to significantly lower surfactant penetration into the surface layers of the skin.Therefore, this study provides conclusive evidence that surfactant phase chemistry plays a critical role in surfactant penetration into the stratum corneum and skin mildness.

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