Dyes and preservatives

Hello! I would like a bit of help in terms of information.

1. Dyes
As far as I know there are different types of dyes. I am looking into Basic Dyes. Are there a whole ‘nother categories under that type of dye? I have read that Basic Dyes are Aniline dyes (which clicked in my mind as those tie dye powders used to make tie dye shirts) Or is there a lot more of different types of Basic Dyes?

2. Preservatives
I was wondering what preservative is best to make shampoo/conditioner? Organic ones? How do I know the shelf life of a product i make on my own? 

Thank you so much for giving time for this if ever! 
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