Industrial mixer for small scale manufacturer- emulsions - Cosmetic Science Talk

Industrial mixer for small scale manufacturer- emulsions

edited July 2016 in Resources

Hi everyone,  

 

I have confronted a technical problem in my formulating and experimenting process. Since hand mixers and stick blenders for kitchen u is all I have on hand at the moment I was wondering if anybody has any suggestion on a proffessional mixer I could invest in to make batches up to 2 kilos. I am at the moment ocused on emulsions only.

 

Thanks a lot!

Comments

  • edited June 2014
    Scroll down for DIY project.
  • edited January 2014
    To create an emulsion you need high shear forces in the liquid, which are necessary to create small particles and therefore stable emulsions. So greater mixing intensity, especially with respect to impeller tip speed, will create smaller dispersed phase droplets, which should help create a more stable emulsion. 

    I would go for a saw-tooth disk impeller to emulsify because it can transfer the power to the liquid as shear force with little pumping. The tip speed may need to be 0.5 to 1.5 m/sec.  A tip speed (velocity at the tip of the impeller) of 1 to 3 m/s is common for liquid-liquid dispersion.  At these tip velocities, strong shear gradients are formed in the fluid, resulting is drop break-up and dispersion.  Nominal drop sizes from 20 to 80 microns are possible with these tip speeds, but the physical properties of the fluids have a strong effect on these results. High-shear mixers can be of several types eg saw-tooth disks, rotor-stator devices, colloid mills and high-pressure homogenizers.  A combination of a high-shear saw-tooth disk impeller and an anchor impeller may provide the combination you need.

    You can buy these attachments to add to your mixer (or high speed drill) from indco and IKA.
    Jane Barber
    Head Cosmetic Chemist
    www.makingskincare.com & The Advanced Cosmetic Formulators Club 
    Formulation discussion forum (14,000 members): www.facebook.com/groups/makingskincare/
  • Jasmine15. If you are successful at making lotions with a stick blender, what you probably need is just a bigger blender. I don't know what your budget is, but commercial stick blenders can go from $150 to 600 or more depending on the power and other things. Check this one "Waring WSB50 12" Big Stik Variable Speed..." Less than $300 at http://www.webstaurantstore.com/waring-wsb50-12-big-stik-variable-speed-heavy-duty-immersion-blender-120v-750w/929WSB50.html
    I heard many people use these blenders for small commercial operations successfully
  • For the amount of money that one would spend on a high end stick blender they could be transferring overr to lab type blenders. Variable speed and a mixer stand are big pluses/ I have several Formulations which require slow mixing during the cool down (from 75C to <40C). This process can take upwards of 30 minutes plus. Try holding that stick blender that long and try getting the proper mix speed with a stick blender.
    markfuller@microformulation.com Microformulation.com Microformulation Cosmetic Consulting provides Custom Formulations for both large Commercial accounts as well as smaller entrepreneurs. We can provide Naturally compliant Formulations under the NSF, NPA, Whole Foods and USDA Organic Certifications.
  • edited January 2014
    Obviously, slow mixing during cool down is not possible with a blender, or at least not ideal. The holding-part-for-that-long can be solved with a stock pot clamp


  • It is an important issue. I have mentored many small crafters working in their kitchen. A big issue is aeration. I urge them to at least invest in an entry level variable speed mixer. They can start at $150 or so on Ebay.
    markfuller@microformulation.com Microformulation.com Microformulation Cosmetic Consulting provides Custom Formulations for both large Commercial accounts as well as smaller entrepreneurs. We can provide Naturally compliant Formulations under the NSF, NPA, Whole Foods and USDA Organic Certifications.
  • Thank you all! I have just got  from bed finally free of viruses and got some useful info from you guys to study! Thanks a lot. I look forward to exploring world of mixers!

     

    Cheers,

     

    Jasmine

  • In a lot of cases, professional cosmetic chemists are trying to mimic the actions of a triple-action kettle on a lab scale.

    The triple action mixer uses a low speed side-sweep or anchor stirrer, a medium speed stirring propellor or propeller set, and a high speed homogenizer. Most labs use one or two variable speed overhead mixers, with various blades, and then a separate homogenizing mixer to duplicate the actions of this production scale machine.

    You can make perfectly fine emulsions with just an overhead mixer and the appropriate blades - it just takes more time (and possibly more emulsifier) than using a homogenizing mixer. 

    This is a triple-action kettle. Look at the diagrams to get a better view of what this does:

    Robert Zonis, Sr. Formulation Chemist, Beaumont Products "All opinions and comments expressed are my own, have no relation to Beaumont Products, are fully copyrighted, and may not be used without written permission."
  • image
    0-2000 rpm, $132, ships from CA, but might not be fast enough for robust emulsification? Dremel + rheostat a more flexible tool?

    http://www.ebay.com/itm/Electric-overhead-stirrer-mixer-variable-speed-25-W-New-/330401686003?pt=LH_DefaultDomain_0&hash=item4ced79a1f3
  • Hello
    friends, If you are going to find a suitable cosmetic production
    machine. i am gonna say I can help you!We are specialized Cosmetic
    production machine manufacturers. we have been in this area for years.
    We have mature technology  and skilled engneers. Any Inquiry will be
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  • Hello, 

    We are going to be developing basic solutions and emulsions (shampoo, conditioner, shower gel, body butter) is there a minimum spec you would recommend for the mixer? I am looking at purchasing a hand held which is 2,500 rpm max. Thanks



  • @tonyh whats the best proppeller blade for making hand creams? do u have any shape or website?
  • edited June 2014
    >@tonyh whats the best proppeller blade for making hand creams?
    >do u have any shape or website?

    Hi @nasrins, the best impeller/blade for emulsion some say is sawtooth.

    ---

    I was planning to do a few mod-mixers to get pictures and videos. All that I have done I have never record the process step by step.

    I am going to reveal the secret.

    Why the air bubbles, why: The mistake many make is mixing emulsion using the up and down motion - is lifting the mixer above the emulsion line, out of the emulsion, and inserting it back again, etc. Constantly lifting the kitchen immersion mixer "up and down" to mix. This is a no, no. Why? When you lift the mixer head "up and down" above the emulsion line, air gets pulled into the empty space as the blade spins and makes contact back with the emulsion again.

    Kitchen hand immersion mixers are great for mixing cosmetics because of their speed-rpm. I guess one can say it's a low-end shear untamed mixing device. But there is more to shear-mixers that has to do with the mixer-head shield design; because the high-rpm and the impeller in the head creates close/near-wall jet-force as the emulsion pulls through the head.

    The project I will share is for a 'Simple DIY mixer'. The 'Deluxe DIY Project' is more involved and is almost shear performance.

    Simple DIY inexpensive mixer:

    1. Get this kitchen immersion mixer. "Cuisinart CSB-33 QuikPrep Hand Blender". The mixer impeller/blade (as is) is decent and will create a nice vortex. If you don't like it at that angle, just use a strong pliers to twist the blade more in the vertical:
    http://www.amazon.com/Cuisinart-CSB-33-QuikPrep-Blender-White/dp/B00004VXB2

    2. You need an Off and On switch, which can be modified into the unit; or you can just tape a button formed from layered cardboard pasted together, etc. Put the cardboard cutout button over one of the speed button and press it in as you wrap adhesive tape around the handle to keep the button pressed in. Or you can use a rigid piece of cardboard and insert into the 'thin bottom space' at 'low speed button' of the CSB-33 switch to keep it pressed in. Or you can just Krazy glue it in. Keep in mind that the Hand Blender will be powered On at all times because the switch is held in.

    3. To solve the Constant Power ON problem, use a "Speed Controller, Variable AC Motor Rheostat". Get this one. It only works with Brush-Type Motor, which the CSB-33 is:
    http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B009KAEP7A

    4. The Cuisinart-CSB-33 has a plastic shield head. On the top of the plastic shield head, drill 4 holes in cross-formation. (You can use this drill bit to make the holes. Use with caution, not to damage the CSB-33 impeller, because it is fixed: http://www.amazon.com/SE-Diamond-Core-Hole-DC3124CD/dp/B009W6C10A , or just use a 1/4 inch shaft star-head screwdriver (insulate the handle) and heat it on the stove (CAUTION, BE CAREFUL!!!), and puncture holes into the top of the shield in cross-formation, since the shield is plastic.) These holes will prevent vacuum build-up and will create channel vortexes for better mixing. Also, the holes will release any trapped air in the shield-head as you insert the shaft into the syrupy emulsion. The shaft of this blender is good for a 4 quart container, because the shaft is only 5 1/2 inches long. For a 4 quart batch, leave about 1 inch shaft length above emulsion line.

    5. Get this: American Educational Cast Iron Triangular Base Support Stand, 5" Legs, 1/2" Diameter x 24" Length Rod Size: http://www.amazon.com/American-Educational-Triangular-Resistant-Diameter/dp/B00657VP7E
     
    6. Get this: SEOH CLAMP HOLDER UNIVERSAL up to 3/4" rod (The Pivot Clamp Holder costs 3 times more, but it allows you to angle the blender shaft): http://www.amazon.com/SEOH-CLAMP-HOLDER-UNIVERSAL-rod/dp/B0018MKX5Q

    7. Get this: Talboys 916059 Nickel-Plated Zinc 2-Prong Dual Adjustment Multi-Purpose Extension Clamp, 11mm Diameter x 127mm Length Arm, 95mm Grip Size: http://www.amazon.com/Talboys-Nickel-Plated-Adjustment-Multi-Purpose-Extension/dp/B005CJV68Y

    8. ASSEMBLY OF PARTS: Attach the 'SEOH Clamp Holder Universal' in the vertical to the 'American Educational Cast Iron Triangular Base Support Stand' and adjust and tighten. Then attach the 'Talboys 916059 Nickel-Plated Zinc 2-Prong' in the horizontal to the 'SEOH Clamp Holder Universal' and adjust and tighten. Then insert the Hand Blender into the 'Talboys 916059 Nickel-Plated Zinc 2-Prong' and adjust and tighten. Plug the Hand Blender power cord into 'Speed Controller, Variable AC Motor Rheostat' socket. The Rheostat will be the master On and Off switch and speed controller. That is it.

    9. Optional. (If you adjust the mixing shaft close to the edge of the container, the swivel base will make for better uniform mixing as some emulsions thicken.) LapWorks 12" Heavy Duty Swivel With Steel Ball Bearings: http://www.amazon.com/LapWorks-Swivel-Bearings-Outdoor-Monitors/dp/B003IWFS0Y

    DIY mixer affixed to a stand project complete. This mixer project is a start for 'curious' formulator crafters. I hope I was able to paint pictures of the steps using words.

  • tonyh, this is the post that led me to this forum;-)

    I was looking for a hand held homogenizer at a reasonable price, and came across the
    CAT X120. At US$357.00 I thought it was quite reasonable, but then realized that it is just for the drive, and that the Shaft and Generator Assembly will cost an additional US$450.

    I then started searching on Google for cheaper alternatives, and ended up here.

    I do have a question, and hope someone can help.

    I had not quite given up on finding a DIY hand held, variable speed, high shear mixer/disperser, and contacted Jim, at Gardco.

    He replied "Most cosmetic companies use a small 1-5/8 inch dispersion blade with a 12 inch 3/8 diameter shaft."

    SO, I then got excited, and contacted Dremel to ask what size shaft their Dremel Pro 3000 (Variable speed from 5,000 to 32,000 RPM) takes.

    Big disappointment, they wrote:

    "The Dremel high speed rotary tools will only accept a shaft size that is 1/8" - 1/32"."

    So, the Gardco shaft is too big.

    My question:

    Does anyone know of a shaft (and disperser blade) that will fit in a 1/8" - 1/32" socket?

    OR

    Does anyone know of a variable speed rotary tool (5,000 to =/-30,000 RPM, that can fit a 3/8 diameter shaft?

    This setup is really intended for the DIY Skin care crowd, for making small fresh batches of about 50 to 100 gram of product.

  • edited June 19
    @Tonyh - pictures of the finished project would probably be useful.

    @johnsutw - If you absolutely had to use a Dremel, probably your best bet would be to get a small disperser blade on a 1/4 inch shaft, and then have a local machine shop grind a small part of the shaft down to 1/8 inch.
    Robert Zonis, Sr. Formulation Chemist, Beaumont Products "All opinions and comments expressed are my own, have no relation to Beaumont Products, are fully copyrighted, and may not be used without written permission."
  • Thank you, Robert!

    A Dremel is not a must, but it is the only small tool I have found with this RPM range, I will follow your suggestion!

    Regards,
    John
  • edited October 2014
    John,

    Make sure that the machine shop knows why you are asking for the shaft to be ground/milled down. It would probably be helpful to bring them the dremel chuck and the blade with the shaft attached, as well. The technique they use will be different for a shaft that spins at 30,000 rpm as opposed to 30 rpm. The size reduced area of the shaft will ideally be perfectly centered so the shaft will be dynamically balanced - wobbling at those speeds would be a Bad Idea(tm).

    Bob
    Robert Zonis, Sr. Formulation Chemist, Beaumont Products "All opinions and comments expressed are my own, have no relation to Beaumont Products, are fully copyrighted, and may not be used without written permission."
  • You could try indco and mixerdirect as they have a variety of shafts and blades.  To make the micelles as small as possible for a more stable emulsion you'll need a saw tooth disk impeller/dissolver/dispersion blade. They come in various forms - I'd choose the one which has local high shear with little pumping.  And then get an anchor/paddle attachment for cool down.  

    Do check the torque (ncm) of your proposed stirrer.  The higher the torque, the better if you are making viscous emulsions or large quantities.  (If your emulsion is viscous then there is no point getting a high rpm stirrer if it's lack of torque means that it can hardly move the emulsion). 
    Jane Barber
    Head Cosmetic Chemist
    www.makingskincare.com & The Advanced Cosmetic Formulators Club 
    Formulation discussion forum (14,000 members): www.facebook.com/groups/makingskincare/
  • Bobzchemist

    , I have emailed promixmixers.com, because they state they can customize shafts, and asked if they can do their 25S12 shaft (1/4" wide  -12" long)  with a 1/8 inch
    taper at the end.

    Will post updates here.

    MakingSkincare, what sort of torgue would be best for viscous emulsion?

    So far I have only focusssed on speed.

    Steve Schmidt from DisperseTech wrote

    "Usually we try to reach a tip speed of 5000 feet per minute. So a 4" blade would need about 5000 rpm, a 2" - 10,000, a 1" 20,000."


    Dremel 3000: 125W to 130W with 10,000-33,000rpm.
    Dremel 4000 : 175W with  5,000 - 35,000rpm

    Cat Scientific X120: 140 Watt with 5000 – 35000 rpm
    Cat Scientific Unidrive X1000:  650 Watt with 4000 – 33000 rpm


    I am still looking for a variable speed electric drill that has high torgue AND high variable speed RPM.

  • edited October 2014
    johnsutw - it really depends on the volume and thickness of what you're trying to mix - my heidolph stirrer (RZR2041) has a torque of 520 - it can handle viscous emulsions ranging up to 2kg.  

    Caframo is another brand - torque ranges depending on the model, their ultra torque BDC1850 goes to 565 ncm with viscosity at 90,000. Their universal BDC3030 model has torque at 339 ncm.

    IKA's stirrers range, the eurostar 60 digital which we have in the lab has a torque of 60 ncm - it won't stir viscous emulsions without giving an error message and needing some occasional rest!!

    We also have CAT stirrers in the lab (although 4 of them are broken!) - the R100C (150 ncm) and even better the R100CT (600 ncm) have higher torque than the IKA and the CT version can handle stirring viscous clay masks.  The 50D CAT was too weak to stir viscous emulsions.
    Jane Barber
    Head Cosmetic Chemist
    www.makingskincare.com & The Advanced Cosmetic Formulators Club 
    Formulation discussion forum (14,000 members): www.facebook.com/groups/makingskincare/
  • edited October 2014
    I can't seem to edit my post but wanted to add that torque (ncm) is really more important than rpm as you can't reach high rpm without a decent torque.  Most lab stirrers only go to 2,000 rpm and then we use a homogeniser (usually a silverson) to get the particle size as small as possible.  

    So a dremel with 33,000 rpm isn't realistically going to get to anywhere close to that speed if even the expensive lab stirrers with high torque struggle just to reach 2,000 rpm.

    If you don't want to buy a lab stirrer, my advice would be to buy a large catering stick blender eg waring big stik to create the emulsion and then switching to a kitchenaid to stir during cool down.  But if you're making small batches - you mention 100g in one of your comments then I'd just stick to with ordinary kitchen stick blender.  

    As long as you choose the right emulsification system incl stabilisers you can create emulsions which will pass stability tests without the need for homogenisation.

    Don't forget, you can also choose emulsifiers which don't need high mixing speed eg sepigel can just be hand stirred.
    Jane Barber
    Head Cosmetic Chemist
    www.makingskincare.com & The Advanced Cosmetic Formulators Club 
    Formulation discussion forum (14,000 members): www.facebook.com/groups/makingskincare/
  • Again, thanks for the detailed info!!!
  • You're welcome.  Forgot to mention that wattage also matters.  Best of luck, let us know what you decide.
    Jane Barber
    Head Cosmetic Chemist
    www.makingskincare.com & The Advanced Cosmetic Formulators Club 
    Formulation discussion forum (14,000 members): www.facebook.com/groups/makingskincare/
  • @johnsutw, try the dremel, and the shaft from promix. If you are making 100 grams in a 250ml beaker, the torque of the dremel will probably be OK. But...even if it is, the chances that it will be strong enough to mix a 500 gram batch are pretty slim.
    Robert Zonis, Sr. Formulation Chemist, Beaumont Products "All opinions and comments expressed are my own, have no relation to Beaumont Products, are fully copyrighted, and may not be used without written permission."
  • James from promix replied:

    "we will not be able to modify the shaft to fit the Dremel as this will be too thin to machine.
    Also the shaft will become weak and dangerous at high speed"

    So, the Dremel is now definitely not an option ;-)

    Will now look for a high torgue and high speed electric drill, and use tonyh's 

    idea of using the "Speed Controller, Variable AC Motor Rheostat" (from his post above)
  • @johnsutw, you should see if they'll make a blade that will fit one of the dremel shafts, but let us know about the high-torque, high-speed drill.
    Robert Zonis, Sr. Formulation Chemist, Beaumont Products "All opinions and comments expressed are my own, have no relation to Beaumont Products, are fully copyrighted, and may not be used without written permission."
  • Robert Zonis, Sr. Formulation Chemist, Beaumont Products "All opinions and comments expressed are my own, have no relation to Beaumont Products, are fully copyrighted, and may not be used without written permission."
  • edited October 2014
    >Will now look for a high torgue and high speed electric drill, and use tonyh's
    >idea of using the "Speed Controller, Variable AC Motor Rheostat" (from his post above)

    @johnsutw:  The plan I gave above is just a surface (not too involved) plan. In this plan the "Speed Controller" does not range from 0 - 15,000 rpm (etc). To have 100% rpm Rheostat control, the 2-speed switch in the stick blender has to be disabled internally. (Many squirm at this dirty work).  Doing this will give the Rheostat 100% speed control from 0 to 15,000 rpm (for example). You will be able to mix gels, shampoos, etc.

    If you are going to mount the drill to a lab stand, and to have 100% speed control, you are going to have to disable the power switch and connect the wires from motor to internal power cable of drill. As is, the drill switch is between the motor and power cable. If you can do that, then connect the Rheostat always, and buy shafts and blades/impellers.


  • Something I considered at some point was to use a woodworking router to power a saw tooth dispersing blade. Then I got a homogenizer and forgot about it. Routers come in different powers (up to 2.5 HP), with variable speed controls up to 30,000 rpm, and have collets (basically a fix diameter chuck) of 1/4 ,3/8, or 1/2 inch.

    Routers can be expensive; but there are some cheap ones that could serve to prove the concept. I wouldn't use a long shaft to mount the dispersing blade, though. A collet is designed to hold short bits and I don’t know how it would behave with a long rod. I am afraid that if it is too long it could start vibrating and break the collet. 

    Like with any other equipment, a router would need some type of stand or support to hold it in place.

    This is just an idea I wanted to share.
  • I have bought an 18 volt battery powered hand drill and 2 varieties of paint stirrers for mixing my lotions.  I would appreciate any advice or suggestions regarding use.  I have cetearyl alcohol & ceteareth 20 e-wax.  



  • @Botanicalsecrets,

    Please start a new discussion.
    Robert Zonis, Sr. Formulation Chemist, Beaumont Products "All opinions and comments expressed are my own, have no relation to Beaumont Products, are fully copyrighted, and may not be used without written permission."
  • How do I post a picture?
  • I have started a new discussion, but I can't work out how to post the pictures
  • Robert Zonis, Sr. Formulation Chemist, Beaumont Products "All opinions and comments expressed are my own, have no relation to Beaumont Products, are fully copyrighted, and may not be used without written permission."
  • @ botanicalsecrets
    Did you try to copy and paste your pictures? I just tried and worked.
  • To post pictures...

    In the icon bar above where you type in your comment you'll see a bunch of different icons.  'B I abc, etc.  

    The 6th icon from the right is a box with a green screen on it.  Click on that and put the web address of the picture that you want to upload.  

    Of course just pasting the picture into the comment box might work too.
  • @ Ruben while this is a novel idea. I would recommend to anyone. Do not try to use a shaft impeller on a router motor. At 30,000 rpm's it will fold up like a pretzel. The low speed of a drill motor is ok for slow speed mixing. 
  • Found a decent deal on Amazon: Generic Chinese brand 100 - 2500 rpm 60W mixer with digital readout, 110 - 230V, 2 yr warranty for $440 including shipping, impeller and stand.

    https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B00CF3J07E/ref=oh_aui_detailpage_o00_s00?ie=UTF8&psc=1

    And a 8 mm shaft 55mm sawtooth disperser for $64 (I bought the last one)
    https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B00CF3J07E/ref=oh_aui_detailpage_o00_s00?ie=UTF8&psc=1

    Seems like a good deal for the home gamer / semi-professional who only use the tool on occasion.  One concern, is there any need for higher RPMs?

  • You can buy a Chinese emulsifier for not much more.
    Special interests: anti-aging creams, gels, and serums; sulphate-free shampoos; and therapeutic cosmetics.
  • edited November 2016
    Not a good option for small scale sample making which Is what I'd use it for:
    Rotor/Stator won't fit into small vessels.
    Higher minimum speed.
    Slow China shipping, and imagine warranty returns, lol.

    Other emulsifier/homogenizer options are typically repackaged dremels with 5000 rpm minimum speed or used giants which require $500 rotors to work. At that point you might as well use an industrial immersion blender instead.

    You could get a 40 - 6000 RPM overhead mixer used for $500 on ebay though: http://www.ebay.com/itm/Caframo-Ultra-Speed-Digital-Stirrer-BDC6015-40-6000-rpm-/232010563536?hash=item3604e83fd0:g:0SMAAOSwyKxXhQm-

    New $1500. 




  • edited November 2016
  • Catering machinery suppliers may come up with the goods.
    Good thing there is that they will/should be able to supply sizes from domestic kitchen/small restaurant to large scale industrial production.
  • Restaurant supply stores can frequently be a source of instant gratification for buying lab supplies.
    Robert Zonis, Sr. Formulation Chemist, Beaumont Products "All opinions and comments expressed are my own, have no relation to Beaumont Products, are fully copyrighted, and may not be used without written permission."

  • $160 including shipping, variable speed from 530-3100 RPM with LED readout. I mean what more could you ask for - changing beakers has never been easier :D No lotion too thick lol.

    I tested the Generic Chinese unit described above, comes with an external 110 - 220V PSU outputting 24V DC, 72W. Can be overclocked to run at 2750 RPM through the menu. Silent brushless DC motor and nice timer feature, but too much run-out (spindle wobble) for my liking causing vibrations at certain RPMs. If not for that it would have been 5/5.
    Tip speed with 55 mm sawtooth disk:
    Circumference = 3.14 * 0.055m = 0.173m
    Speed = 0.173m * 2750 rpm = 475 m/min or 8 m/s



  • That would be perfect for my basement - a creams/lotions mixer and a woodworking drill press, all in one package. What more could you ask for?

    Seriously, it's stuff like this that gets me so annoyed at the lab mixer companies. Something just like this on a lab stand and in different colors would run about $2,000 - $3,000.
    Robert Zonis, Sr. Formulation Chemist, Beaumont Products "All opinions and comments expressed are my own, have no relation to Beaumont Products, are fully copyrighted, and may not be used without written permission."
  • A problem I've found using an engineering drill press press as a mixer is that there can sometimes be an oil leakage from the gearbox. This wouldn't matter using the drill for its intended purpose but it could spell ruin for your delicate emulsion.

    I've experienced this twice when the mixer/drill was working very hard for a long period and over a heater but, for normal uses and as long as an eye is kept on proceedings, these drills are excellent for the purpose.
  • Fixed the Chinese unit, chuck wasn't seated all the way up the spindle from the factory. Now runs totally true and quiet and it actually goes up to 3000 rpm. 4.5/5.
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