How would you design a Glycolic Acid Moisturizing lotion? Two industry leading examples within - Cosmetic Science Talk

How would you design a Glycolic Acid Moisturizing lotion? Two industry leading examples within

I was asked to make a simpler AHA lotion, and I'm wondering what changes you all would make to two similar industry leaders (well, Aqua Glycolic was praised until reformulated). Common ingredients bolded and with quick guesstimate percentages:

Aqua Glycolic pH 4.4 (before it was reformulated)

rest% Water
8% Cetyl Riconoleate (emollient, could be replaced by cetyl alcohol?)
6% C12-15 Alkyl Benzoate (emollient)
~5% Glycolic Acid
?% Hyaluronic Acid (might be too high on the list)
4% Ceresin (emollient, thickener)
3% Ammonium Glycolate (pH buffer)
3% Glyceryl Stearate (and) PEG-100 Stearate (emulsifier)
2% Sorbitan Stearate (co-emulsifier)
1% Sorbitol (humectant)
1% Propylene Glycol (humectant, antifreeze ;)
0.5% Diazolidinyl Urea (Preservative, not allowed in EU)
0.1% Methylparaben (preservative)
0.1% Propylparaben (preservative)
0.5% Magnesium Aluminum Silicate (thickening agent and poss pH buffer)
1% Dimethicone (film former)
0.3% Xanthan Gum (thickening agent)
0.1% Trisodium EDTA (preservative)

Alpha Hydrox Essential Renewal Cream ph 4, many of the same ingredients with guesstimates.

rest% Water
10% Glycolic Acid
5% Glyceryl Stearate, PEG 100 Stearate
4% Ammonium Hydroxide
3% Cetyl Alcohol
3% Propylene Glycol
3% C12-15 Alkyl Benzoate
2% Stearic Acid
2% PEG-40 Stearate
2% Cyclomethicone
1% Polyacrylamide
1% C13-14 Isoparaffin
1% Laureth-7
1% Glyceryl Dilaurate
0.5% Polysorbate 60
0.4% Xanthan Gum
0.3% Sorbic Acid
0.3% Magnesium Aluminum Silicate
0.3% Imidazolidinyl Urea
0.2% BHT

How would you improve upon these formula bases? I.e.

Glycolic Acid
Glyceryl Stearate and PEG 100 Stearate 
Ammonium based pH buffer
Cetyl Alcohol or Riconoleate
C12-15 Alkyl Benzoate
Propylene Glycol
Preservative system
Film formers
Co-emulsifiers
Xanthan Gum



Comments

  • edited April 14
    Glycolic acid would not be my ingredient of choice in a moisturising lotion. Is it meant to be a moisturiser or an AHA (exfoliating) product? I am somewhat confused.
  • that's a very open-ended question: what I would change depends on what particular physical aspect of the product is deficient, or that the customer wants to change

    that said, personally I'd get rid of the Sepigel in the second one and put in a better emulsifying system

    and diazolidinyl urea is permitted in the EU, up to 0.5% - see Annex V/46
    UK based formulation chemist. Strongest subjects: hair styling, hair bleaches, hair dyes (oxidative and non-oxidative) I know some stuff about: EU regulations, emulsions (O/W and W/O), toothpaste, mouthwash, shampoos, other toiletries
  • In my experience , Glycolic Acid don't use for Moisturizing. Because its an active substance, if not used correctly it can cause damage. Skin needs to get used to it - a percentage that is too high can cause redness, irritation and in severe cases 'frosting' - a flaky crusting of skin that develops as a protection reaction, and which can last for days. Chemical peels use a high percentage of this acid and can be very effective if done safely and properly.

    Founder and CEO, R&D Lab
    Soapily Skincare Cosmetic Corp Inc
    Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam
    Website: http://www.soapily.net/

  • Glycolic Acid is an exfoliating acid.  If you want to make a moisturizing AHA cream, you should be using Lactic Acid, not Glycolic Acid.
    Chemist/Microbiologist formulating in the Organic & Naturals arena under ECOCert/Natural Products Assn/Whole Foods/National Organic Program guidelines focused skincare & haircare products. 

    Provides Formulation Development and Lab-Scale Contract Manufacturing Services.  See website for details www.desertinbloomcosmeticslab.com

  • Hyaluronic acid, Lactic acid (Buttermilk is rich in lactic acid),  Glycerin, Olive oil, Castor oil, Coconut oil, aloe vera, Shea butter, Petrolatum …

    Founder and CEO, R&D Lab
    Soapily Skincare Cosmetic Corp Inc
    Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam
    Website: http://www.soapily.net/

  • Glycolic Acid 
    Glyceryl Stearate and PEG 100 Stearate 
    Ammonium based pH buffer
    Cetyl Alcohol or Riconoleate
    C12-15 Alkyl Benzoate

    Preservative system
    Film formers (don't use silicons)
    Co-emulsifiers
    Xanthan Gum  not good for lotion, U can replace it

    Moisturizing function :
    Propylene Glycol, Hyaluronic acid, Lactic acid (Buttermilk is rich in lactic acid),  Glycerin, Olive oil, Castor oil, Coconut oil, aloe vera, Shea butter...

    Founder and CEO, R&D Lab
    Soapily Skincare Cosmetic Corp Inc
    Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam
    Website: http://www.soapily.net/

  • edited April 14
    @johnb it's an exfoliating moisturizer, many use them as facial moisturizers to get smoother skin and get the benefits of AHA's (stimulated collagen and ceramide synthesis). I used the second one myself as a teenager to help backne. Some people also use them for keratosis pilaris.

    @Bill_Toge in this case I'm just asking how you could simplify it, whilst maintaining or improving sensorials. A good starting point would be, what's the base formula that gets you 90% of the performance of the formulas above.

    @MarkBroussard Lactic acid is also exfoliating, but maybe ~30% less than glycolic? At the end of the day I don't think you'll get dramatically different effects with either one, although lactic can have the drawback of ant-piss scent depending on source. 
    "2003 randomized clinical efficacy of superficial peeling with 85 percent lactic acid versus 70 percent glycolic acid"

    @Soapily I would not use olive oil in any moisturizer, too much oleic acid and disruption of the skin barrier.
    "2002 Impact of topical oils on the skin barrier: possible implications for neonatal health in developing countries."
  • Consider replacing glycolic etc with capryloyl (C8) salicylic acid. https://www.ulprospector.com/documents/1501317.pdf?bs=5573&b=703424&st=1&sl=45265420&crit=a2V5d29yZDpbU0FMSUNZTElDIEFDSURd&k=SALICYLIC|ACID|acidic|acids&r=na&ind=personalcare
  • edited April 14
    Here's another full formula from Vanderbilt, I have some questions
    1. Why are they all using Magnesium Alu Silicate? Better skin feel than only using gums?
    2. Why C12-15 Alkyl Benzoate and not e.g. Squalane or (more) Caprylic/Capric Trigylcerides?
    3. Why Ammonium Hydroxide instead of Triethanolamine as pH adjuster? Are there more "natural" alternatives? NaOH, Urea etc?
    4. Would a BTMS based emulsification system likely work here? 
    Intensive AHA Moisturizing Lotion No. 476 

    VEEGUM® Ultra Magnesium Aluminum Silicate 1.50
    VANZAN® NF Xanthan Gum 0.50
    Water 73.34
    B
    Glycerin 3.00
    Butylene Glycol 2.00
    C
    Cetyl Alcohol 1.00
    Glyceryl Monostearate SE 3.00
    Caprylic/Capric Triglyceride (Neobee® M-51) 5.00
    C12-15 Octanoate (FinesterTM EH-252) 1.00
    Dimethicone (XIAMETER® PMX-200 Silicone Fluid 350cs3) 1.00
    Steareth-2 (Brij® S24) 0.83
    Steareth-21 (Brij® S7214) 0.83
    D
    Glycolic Acid, 70 % 7.00
    Triethanolamine 3.20
    Citric Acid (to pH 3.8 ± 0.2) q.s.
    E
    Preservative, Fragrance q.s.

    METHOD
    While heating the water to 75°C, slowly add the VEEGUM Ultra and VANZAN NF sequentially or as a dry blend to the water agitated at maximum available shear. Mix until fully hydrated. Add the remaining water phase ingredients from Part B, mixing until uniform. Maintain the water phase at 75°C. Blend the Part C oil phase ingredients and heat to 75°C. Add the oil phase to the water phase with good agitation; mix until uniform. Cool while mixing. Add the Part D and Part E ingredients when the emulsion is <40oC. Adjust as necessary to pH 3.8 ± 0.2. 
  • it's an exfoliating moisturizer, many use them as facial moisturizers to get smoother skin and get the benefits of AHA's (stimulated collagen and ceramide synthesis).

    The problem I always consider with multipurpose compositions such as you are advocating here is that the job they do is frequently inferior to the job that can be done by two separate products.

  • In this case the sum of the parts > the parts alone judging from my own experience (it's better to have both in one to treat backne), from dermatologists recommending the product (AHA's alone or in gels are not very suitable for consumer use) and from customer reviews.

    The thing is, AHA's don't need low pH to affect ceramide and collagen synthesis, so you don't want or need the product to be an extreme exfoliant like you'd get with pure AHA.For the avg consumer daily use scenario it's an extremely useful combination. It could also serve as a base for acid stable actives.
  • I’ve formulated a few AHA lotions, which exfoliate and moisturize in tandem.  They’re a big hit.

    First I would keep the pH lower, around 3.5, as lower pH = more free acid penetrating the stratum corneum = more efficacious formula with less AHA.  For instance, a glycolic acid formula at pH 4.5 will have about 17.5% active/free/uncharged acid, but a formula at pH 3.5 will have about 68% free acid.

    You see by doing the math, the first formula at pH = 4.4 with 5% glycolic acid has less than 1% active AHA.  (If the same 5% were at pH of 3.5, it would be a notch below 3.5% active AHA.)  So, you would have to decide upon what level of AHA activity you want at what pH and use the appropriate percentage of AHA to attain your targeted active level.

    I know you said you don’t need the low pH, but a lower pH formula in and of itself has skin benefits (cohesion of stratum corneum, enhanced epidermal barrier, antimicrobial defense, proteinases-regulating desquamation for optimal cell turnover unassisted by acid exfoliants, etc.).  Low pH lotions are sometimes used on babies, since the acidic pH defense system of skin doesn’t mature enough until about six months of age, and on the elderly, since with age the acidic mantle becomes increasingly too alkaline.

    I’d keep the C12-15 alkyl benzoate for its ability to add emollience, mildness, and enhance spreadability of product.  It’s also non-comedogenic.  I’d probably use it at around 2-3% in something like these formulas, though.

    Propylene glycol is good in this formula, but if people are balking over its (imaginary) “dangers,” then I would substitute 1,3-propanediol.

    Depending upon my formula, I might use xylitol instead of sorbitol.

    Magnesium aluminum silicate is another ingredient that gets the scary hype about it, because of rumors that the buildup of brain aluminum found in Alzheimer’s is caused by absorbing aluminum from cosmetics/deodorants through the skin.  But many scientists think it takes a lot of preexisting brain damage for aluminum to cross the blood-brain barrier (i.e. excess brain aluminum = result and not cause).  Also, the average person typically ingests much more ambient aluminum than he absorbs through the skin.  Nonetheless, both magnesium aluminum silicate and aluminum lauryl sulfate are listed as ingredients to avoid for anyone worried about a history of dementia or Alzheimer’s in their family.  I’ve never formulated with magnesium aluminum silicate, but I’m thinking some of the fatty acids would be as good or better as thickeners—and have broader label appeal (if that’s a concern for your target populations).

    Again, depending on what I wanted to achieve, I might use behenyl alcohol instead of cetyl alcohol.

    I would use a lye/sodium hydroxide solution instead of ammonium hydroxide for buffer.  Both are non-sensitizing at the very low rates they’re used.  But I only know working with NaOH, and I don’t know if there are benefits or drawbacks (real or in the mind of the consumer) to using one over the other.  I know people use ammonium lactate lotions a lot for severely dry and damaged skin, and that’s lactic acid neutralized with ammonium hydroxide.  A lot of times I formulate with ingredients that don’t require an alkalinizing adjustment in the end, especially since I keep AHA lotions below a 4.0 pH.

    I’d include glucono-delta lactone/gluconolactone [GdL] as an adjunct to my AHAs.  GdL confers additional moisturizing and it’s a humectant.  It also can act as a chelating agent and preservative potentiator.  Some people call GdL a future gen AHA.  I use it at <= 1% in some of my AHA lotions.

    I don’t like using xanthan gum in a lot of formulas.  That could be due to my inexpertness, though.  So if I wanted a water phase thickener, I’d use hydroxyethylcellulose [HEC].  I’ve used HEC in several low pH formulas, and it’s performed very well.

    I’ve used the glyceryl stearate (and) PEG-100 stearate emulsifier system a lot.  It’s called “LotionPro” at Lotion Crafter, by the way.  It’s a good emulsifier for low (and regular) pH lotions, and most people love the texture and skin feel of products made with it.  But if you’re looking to avoid the PEG factor because of consumer hysteria, then of course you’d need to choose another emulsifying system.

    I don’t think you’re looking to make a “natural” voodoo goo like my last AHA + BHA formula, but it’s the only one I have handy here.  I made it in two strengths, and the lower and higher strengths came in a set.  They’re for the face.  The sets were given in bridal party gift bags and corporation’s party gift bags.  (Event planners are great ways to get nascent lines out there, by the way, though I don’t go out of my way to market my stuff.  It’s more of a hobby.)  People generally love them.  I think it’s the least pure water I’ve ever used in an aqueous formula!

    I’ll post the higher strength formula here, but note it’s NOT nearly as high as it looks at first glance because (a) they aren’t 100% active compounds to start with and (b) the final pH of 3.77 further bound some of the acids (though there is research suggesting that over time, the bound acids are freed, resulting in a sort of time-delayed AHA effect, but I don’t know much about that).  I have in my notes <= 7% free acids, but you could do the math to get more exact figure.  All feedback was that this max strength lotion was powerful indeed, and needed to be preceded by lower strength for skin acclimation for a week or more.  The lower strength was about half as much total free acids.


  • Voodoo Goo in Percentages

    distilled water        28
    AHA fruit acid mix w/ water ~86% active        10
    refined rosehip oil        6
    cetearyl alcohol (and) glyceryl stearate (and) chlorelleth-20        5.25
    aloe vera filet juice        5
    borage seed oil        4
    apricot kernel oil        3.5
    witch hazel distillate, no alcohol        3
    NataPres (preservative and anti-acne - blah, blah, blah)        2.5
    licorice root extract w/ 0.50 glycerin        2.25
    willow bark extract ~ 10% salicylic acid        2
    hydrolyzed wheat protein        2
    chamomile extract GF        2
    calendula extract w/ 0.50 glycerin        2
    Centella asiatica (gotu kola) w/ 0.50 glycerin        2
    elderberry fruit extract OS        2
    sugar cane extract ~ 35% glycolic acid        2
    C12-15 alkyl benzoate        1.75
    panthenol        1.5
    hibiscus extract GF        1.5
    PEG-7 olivate        1.2
    glycine betaine        1.2
    green tea extract GF        1
    sodium lactate        1
    sodium PCA        1
    hydrogenated olive oil (and) olive oil (and) olive oil unsaponifiables        1
    ceteareth-6 olivate        1
    cetyl alcohol        1
    dimethicone, 500 cps        1
    xylitol        0.5
    glucono delta lactone        0.5
    allantoin        0.4
    tocopherols        0.4
    caffeine        0.35
    potassium sorbate        0.2






  • Thanks @zwapp for the formula and detailed rundown!

    Yes, aware of active acid level. But I doubt there is any significant difference in skin effects due to pH difference of e.g. 3.5 to 4 with regards to "cohesion of stratum corneum, enhanced epidermal barrier, antimicrobial defense, proteinases-regulating desquamation for optimal cell turnover unassisted by acid exfoliants" if you have any studies that suggest otherwise please share, I think a lot of these effects might be conferred by the AHA molecules in the skin in a not-so pH dependent way.

    My question re: alkyl benzoate is how it compares to other similar emollients and why it seems to be the preferred choice in this type of formula. Do you have any take on that?

    Also, why is MAP so prevalent in these?

    Good tip re: GDL, FYI Scleroitum Gum works well in low pH formulas, but can be a bit slimy feeling.

    What alternative PEG free emulsification systems would ya'll recommend?
  • edited April 17
    I am sure you didn't mean MAP (the accepted abbreviation for Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate) as MAP is formulated at a higher ph (>6) due to discoloration.

    Magnesium Aluminum Silicate (Veegum line from RT Vanderbilt) has commonly been used in these Formulations because it is quite stable in the pH's that these products are made and when used properly it actually has some wonderful properties in regard to skin feel, It is for this same reason (pH stability) that you see Veegum also used in the highly alkaline Sodium silicate under eye anti-aging product.

    C12-15 Alkyl Benzoate is also used since it is reasonably priced, ubiquitous (hence easy to obtain), solubilizes many other materials and has great skin effect. While not impossible, you will find that in regard to solubilizing, many other emollients may not be as attractive and may be more expensive. In my experience with these products, the raw material costs can build quickly and you will need the cost saving benefits.

    Lastly, if you are looking to best marry the exfoliating and the moisturizing abilities of the AHA's, a spread of different AHA's is effective. As you move from Glycolic to Lactic to Malic (several others in between), you may see better overall effect.
    markfuller@microformulation.com Microformulation.com Microformulation Cosmetic Consulting provides Custom Formulations for both large Commercial accounts as well as smaller entrepreneurs. We can provide Naturally compliant Formulations under the NSF, NPA, Whole Foods and USDA Organic Certifications.
  • Thanks Mark!

    Yes, I meant.. "MAS", so they'll give a kind of cooling light clay mask feel? Perhaps with some desired pH increase. I'm familiar and have used it in a liquid clay mask formula. Are there any good alu free alternatives when it comes to skin feel? 

    C12-15: Is there anything in particular in the formulas above that needs solubilizing though? I don't see it as often in non AHA moisturizers.

    Do you have any studies on combinations of AHAs showing synergistic effects? Would be really interested to check those out :)

  • Zink, I didn’t have much time to search for studies, but I definitely remember reading from trusted sources about the benefits of low pH lotions.  Simply using Google Scholar, I found several abstracts, but I would have to pay for complete files.  Since cosmetics chemistry doesn’t fall under anything I can expense out, of course I didn’t pay.

    I agree with you that pH being the sole factor, there’s not a significant difference going from 4.0 to 3.5 as far as aforementioned effects on normal skin.  You informed me that you already knew about the significant difference it has upon free acids.  Now, most certainly pH < 4.0 has significant effects on expediting healing of some types of human and animal skin wounds, but I understand that could get into the realm of pharmaceutical grade.  By the way, I should’ve stipulated that I think a “low pH lotion” is anything <= 5.0, but I don’t know if there’s a cosmetics definition of “low pH lotion.”  Wish I had studies to back me up, but somewhere I learned that going from mildly acid (pH ~ 6.0) to more acidic {pH | 3.0 <= pH <= 4.5} does indeed result in those benefits over time.

    This is merely anecdotal, I know, but some friends swear by the really low pH baths that people do in South Korea.  It could be just another crazy trend like face sushi, but I’m awed by a lot of the discoveries coming out of KR.

    Though there are usually consensus opinions, skin feel can be different from one skin type to another (and one body area to another).  I learn as much as I can from chemists specializing in whatever concoction I’m making, but a lot of times I find there’s no better way than doing a comparison test.  Here’s what I would do with C12-15 alkyl benzoate if I were you:  Determine likely percentage you’d use.  Make two very quick emulsions with the only difference being one has x% of C12-15 alkyl benzoate subbed for water.  Label bottom of containers so you can’t see labels.  Have them shuffled around so you don’t know which one is which.  Patch test on yourself and other people for a couple of days under different conditions (fresh out of shower, hours since last shower, after swimming, with and without tattoos, etc.).

    I second what @Microformulation says.  C12-15 alkyl benzoate isn’t only for solubilizing stuff, though it’s good for that.  It confers a glide like no other ester.  It reduces greasy skin feel in high-fat emulsions.  I use it in some silicone-free formulations to reduce soaping effect.  It’s used in sunscreens a lot (but personally I would never make sunscreens because I don’t want to pay for testing or get into anything that’s a regulated drug).  It adds to the mildness of products.  It provides modest occlusion.  In my limited hobbyist world, I find C12-15 alkyl benzoate very versatile.

    It looks like you will want a more technical analysis than I know offhand, so I’d suggest you compare molecular weights, skin penetrating effects, and all that more detailed stuff.  Here’s a link to a paper for you (which I only glanced due to time constraints, so I don’t know how much it will help you):

    http://publisher.medfak.ni.ac.rs/AFMN/2013/4-2013/3.pdf

    Thanks for the sclerotium gum tip!  I’ve never used it, don’t know why, but will certainly try it.  It looks good for the beta glucan action, too.  There are some products people want with a bit of slime factor, like essences I make with an 80/20 guar/xanthan mix, and sheet masks. 



  • >>>  Alternatives to PEGs

    cetearyl alcohol (and) cetearyl glucoside – Good for low pH and AHA formulations; compatible with many ingredients; called Montanov 68 at Lotion Crafter; no stability issues or steep learning curve like with Simulgreen 18-2; prefer to use with cetyl alcohol and myristyl myristate; creates thicker emulsions than Simulgreen 18-2; many people report that they love the skin feel of products with this emulsifier system; easy to work with

    glyceryl stearate (and) cetearyl alcohol (and) sodium stearoyl lactylate – There is a pH >= 5.0 restriction; bought it with names of NatureMulse and EcoMulse; even though cationic ingredients are incompatible with lactylates, I’ve used them at low percentages with no problems; sodium stearoyl lactylate is substantive and good skin conditioner

    hydroxystearyl alcohol (and) hydroxystearyl glucoside – aka Simulgreen 18-2; this took me several tries to learn how to use it; tried it with xanthan gum and though it worked, the gum was horrible with Simulgreen; good for low pH and AHA formulations; I almost always need as much or more than the maximum percentage specified; if it’s difficult at first, I think it’s definitely worth the time and effort; people report loving the skin feel

    cetearyl olivate (and) sorbitan olivate – good for low pH; use with glyceryl stearate; prefer to use with behenyl and cetearyl alcohol; called Olivem 1000 at Lotion Crafter; a lot of people complain they have problems with this one, but I never have

    make your own system  – The problem with this is that most of the high HLB emulsifiers I come across include PEG or ethoxylated compounds; I suspect, but don’t know for sure, that it’s hard to beat the PEGs for hydrophilic emulsifiers

    I don’t advocate being deceitful, so if someone wants PEG-free, then you have to go with that.  However, if it’s a concern about people with unfounded worries scanning the LOI looking for PEGs, then you could use any of the [name]+eth+Number high HLB emulsifiers.  I’m amazed at how many people who balk at PEG-100 stearate don’t look askance at ceteareth-Number.  I use ceteareth-20 a lot.  Also, there are suppliers who test for the contaminants people are worried about with PEGs, so another alternative is to have proof that the PEGs you use aren’t tainted with the ethoxylation byproducts.


  • somewhere I learned that going from mildly acid (pH ~ 6.0) to more acidic {pH | 3.0 <= pH <= 4.5} does indeed result in those benefits over time.
    Sounds about right, the popular AHA lotions are pH 4 - 4.4.
    I second what @Microformulation says.  C12-15 alkyl benzoate isn’t only for solubilizing stuff, though it’s good for that.  It confers a glide like no other ester.  It reduces greasy skin feel in high-fat emulsions.  I use it in some silicone-free formulations to reduce soaping effect.  It’s used in sunscreens a lot (but personally I would never make sunscreens because I don’t want to pay for testing or get into anything that’s a regulated drug).  It adds to the mildness of products.  It provides modest occlusion.  In my limited hobbyist world, I find C12-15 alkyl benzoate very versatile.

    Interesting, I'm working on a sunscreen, I've used cyclomethicone for increased slip and otherwise primarily cap

  • edited April 21
    somewhere I learned that going from mildly acid (pH ~ 6.0) to more acidic {pH | 3.0 <= pH <= 4.5} does indeed result in those benefits over time.
    Sounds about right, the popular AHA lotions are pH 4 - 4.4.
    I second what @Microformulation says.  C12-15 alkyl benzoate isn’t only for solubilizing stuff, though it’s good for that.  It confers a glide like no other ester.  It reduces greasy skin feel in high-fat emulsions.  I use it in some silicone-free formulations to reduce soaping effect.  It’s used in sunscreens a lot (but personally I would never make sunscreens because I don’t want to pay for testing or get into anything that’s a regulated drug).  It adds to the mildness of products.  It provides modest occlusion.  In my limited hobbyist world, I find C12-15 alkyl benzoate very versatile.

    Interesting, I'm working on a sunscreen, I've used cyclomethicone for increased slip and otherwise primarily caprylic/capric triglycerides as emollients. Would be interesting to see what C12-15 does in comparison to both. Thanks for the paper and the testing tips, Sclerotium Gum has been good to me ;)


    EMULSIFIERS 

    Montanov 68 I've used once, was less stable than Olivem 1000 in my sunscreen application, but could be a better choice for an AHA lotion! This is something I'm curious about, which emulsifier has better TEWL reduction properties? My instinct would say Monatov 68 as Olivem retains oleic acid chains and we know oleic acid increases TEWL https://www.google.com/patents/EP2237765B1?cl=en

    I'm not very worried about PEGs, but if you can find better non PEG options that makes the choice easy, I luckily don't have to worry about pinching pennies at the moment and can choose rather freely, although It'd be nice to avoid 25 kg MOQs.

    Other emulsifiers I have considered testing

    Polyglyceryl-6 Distearate (and) Jojoba Esters (and) Polyglyceryl-3 Beeswax (and) Cetyl Alcohol
    Potassium Cetyl Phosphate
    Polyglyceryl-6 Distearate (and) Sucrose Stearate (custom mix)
    BTMS from lotioncrafter, because people LOVE the skin feel. Not sure about pH compatibility haven't even tried.




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